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Longmen Grottoes - Bystanders by Fengxiansi -grot

Longmen Grottoes - Bystanders by Fengxiansi -grot


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ABC's van Longmen: Waarom is standbeelde in Longmen so voortreflik?

Die standbeelde in Longmen Grottoes het 'n groot verskeidenheid Boeddhistiese figure en beelde, in alle vorms en groottes. Daar is die 17,14 meter hoë Losana Boeddha sowel as klein standbeelde van slegs 'n paar sentimeter hoog. Die liggings van die grotte word op 'n kompakte en ordelike manier gereël. Boonop is die groter as lewensbeelde fassinerend, beide in vorm en voorkoms.

The Losana Buddha in Fengxian Temple, Longmen Grottoes [Foto / Longmen Grotte op WeChat]

Die Longmen -grotte is hoofsaaklik bedryf deur die keiserlike huishoudings tydens die noordelike Wei- en Tang -dinastieë. Die direkte deelname en volle ondersteuning van die koninklike families is die belangrikste rede vir die grootheid van die grotte. Daar kan gesê word dat daar aan die begin verenigde beplanning en uitleg is en bekwame vakmanne vir die projek van Longmen Grottoes gewerf is.

Kenners sê, klippe in Longmen behoort hoofsaaklik tot die kalk- en dolostonesoorte, wat van hoë intensiteit en lae hardheid is. Sulke gesteentes is maklik om op te sny, maar is bestand teen verwering en erosie.

Twee standbeelde in die Fengxiaanse tempel, Longmen -grotte [Foto / Longmen -grotte op WeChat]

Die Lianhua -grot in Longmen -grotte [Foto / Longmen -grotte op WeChat]

Die Binyang -middelgrot in Longmen -grotte [Foto / Longmen -grotte op WeChat]


Pete en Kristina Roam

Ons vlieg van Dunhuang na Xi ’an. Xi ’an was een van die hoofstede van China met 'n geskiedenis van 3 100 jaar. Xi ’an was die oostelike punt van die Silk Routes. Vandag is dit 'n mediumgrootte Chinese stad met 'n bevolking van 10 miljoen. Ons het dit geniet om die oorvol strate in die ou stad te verken.

Ons het van hierdie pittige tofu geëet, wat lekker was.

Ons het die Wild Goose Pagoda besoek. Dit is in 648 gebou vir die 600 boekrolle wat Xuan Zang van Indië na China teruggebring het.

Ons het die sewe vlakke tot bo geklim, 210 voet. Die trappe word geleidelik kleiner en steiler toe ons opgaan.

Die uitsigte van bo af was wonderlik en het ons laat besef hoe indrukwekkend hierdie gebou moes gewees het, aangesien dit die hoogste in die land vir twaalf eeue was.

Verlede Januarie het ons 'n wonderlike Chinese tempel vir Xuan Zang besoek toe ons in Rajgir, Indië was, waar hy twee jaar aan die groot Boeddhistiese Universiteit in Nalanda gestudeer het. Nou in China het ons dit geniet om meer te leer oor hierdie ongelooflike geleerde wat 16 jaar op reis was en Boeddhisme en Sanskrit in Indië bestudeer het. Daarna het hy 40 jaar in Xi'an deurgebring om die boekrolle wat hy teruggebring het in Chinese te vertaal, wat die omvang van die Chinese Zen -boeddhisme aansienlik vergroot het.

Gebaseer op volksverhale en die roman uit die 16de eeu Reis na die Weste deur Wu Cheng ’en, lees ons Aap, Reis na die Weste oorvertel deur David Kherdian. Dit is die verhaal van Xuan Zang en vier magiese dierekarakters wat Daoïstiese onsterflikes is wat groot struikelblokke oorkom terwyl hulle na Indië reis om die Boeddhistiese tekste te bekom. Na jare se reis eindig die boek met Xuan Zang wat die boekrolle na die Chinese keiser terugbring.

Die Great Wild Goose -pagode is gebou in 'n Indiese argitektoniese styl ter ere van Xuan Zang se reis en die Boeddhistiese geskrifte.

Vir die Olimpiese Spele in 2008 is 'n hele tempelkompleks hier bygevoeg. Hierdie dakversierings is die Daoistiese onsterflike diere. Hulle kyk almal na die monnik aan die voorkant wat op 'n feniks ry.

Pete het dit geniet om die tempelkompleks te fotografeer.

Die groot trekpleister in Xi ’an is die terracotta -leër wat keiser Qin Shihuang se grafheuwel bewaak.

Omtrent 210 v.C. het dit ongeveer 40 jaar geneem om die lewensgetroue 7 000 soldate en 600 perdbeelde te skep.

Die figure is geverf nadat dit afgevuur is. By blootstelling aan lug het die verf geoksideer. Die verf is op hierdie soldate herstel.

Die keiser was 'n tiranniese leier. Nadat hy gesterf het, het die mense in opstand gekom deur die terracotta -leër te verslaan. Hier kan u argeoloë sien wat die stukke weer bymekaarmaak. Dit lyk asof dit 100 jaar sal neem voordat hulle die herstelwerk voltooi het.

Hierdie boogskutter is byna heel aangetref met slegs sy hande gebreek.

Die geskenkwinkel het soldate van groot grootte te koop. Ons is nie versoek nie.

Die terracotta -leër word die agtste wonder van die wêreld genoem. Dit is in 1974 herontdek deur vier boere terwyl hulle 'n put gegrawe het. Die twee boere wat nog lewe, spandeer nou hul dae met die handtekening van museumboeke.

Nadat ons die terracotta -weermag besoek het, het ons na 'n kulturele vertoning van musiek en dans gegaan. Ons het aan Sean Mattingly gedink sedert sy verjaardag die volgende dag, 19 Oktober, was. Vandag stuur ons laat verjaarsdagwense aan ons liewe vriend Sean wat altyd fantastiese kostuums geniet!

Omdat ons saam met 'n toergroep is, eet ons gewoonlik buffet- of gesinsstylmaaltye. Tot dusver het die voedsel in China verskillende vlakke van kwaliteit gehad. Hierdie taai mieliesop smaak meestal aan mielieblom.

Hier is Kristina en Andy by Andy se gunsteling -vegetariese restaurant. Die naam van die restaurant word vertaal as Empty Mind. Bodhidharma, die eerste voorouer van Zen, is deel van die handelsmerk van die restaurant. Ons sal meer skryf oor Bodhidharma in ons volgende plasings.

Hierdie geregte koringgluten met sojaboon spruite en setperke en ingelegde koolslaai was heerlik.

Benewens Boeddhistiese tempels, het ons ook Confuciaanse en Daoïstiese tempels in Xi'an besoek. Die eerste foto toon voorouergeld in vergelyking met die regte Chinese geldeenheid. As deel van die Daoïstiese tradisie word dit gereeld verbrand sodat die dooies geld in die hiernamaals kan hê. Die tweede foto is waar die voorvaderlike geld verbrand word.

Een persent (1%) van Xi ’an is Moslem. Net soos hierdie ma en dogter, is hulle afstammelinge van Moslems wat 1000 jaar gelede die Silk Road gereis het en hulle in Xi gevestig het. Die foto is geneem in die tuin van die Groot Moskee van Xi ’an, wat in 742 gestig is.

Daarna het die toergroep per bus na Luoyang gereis om die Longmen -grotte te besoek met wonderlike Boeddhistiese standbeelde.

Die vele onreëlmatige grotopeninge is in kalkrots uitgekerf en lyk soos Switserse kaas.

Die Longmen -grotte is aanvanklik befonds deur keiser Xianwen van die Noordelike Wei -dinastie in 493 toe hy sy hoofstad na Luoyang verskuif het. Hierdie keiser het ook 'n paar van die Dunhuang -tempelgrotte geborg.

Die hoogste skepping van grotte en beelde was in die 7de en 8ste eeu, wat tydens die Tang -dinastie was toe die Boeddhisme ook baie sterk was. Hier word Ananda, die Boeddha se bediende, gewys.

Daar is vermoedelik soveel as 100,000 Boeddhabeelde hier in die 1400 grotte. Aangesien sommige van die standbeelde so klein soos 'n duim is, en dat hierdie deur na die 10.000 Boeddha -grot lei, lyk dit moontlik.

Hierdie bekoorlike standbeeld van 'n monnik was ongeveer 8 sentimeter lank.

Die Longmen -grotte is 'n UNESCO -wêrelderfenisgebied. Ons was bly dat ons die pragtige beelde kon fotografeer.

Benewens menslike vorms, is daar ook geboue soos hierdie pagode.

Op hierdie foto is Enkyo Roshi, Zen -priester en geestelike leier van ons reis Angus, 'n nuwe vriend en mede -praktisyn en Andy Ferguson, Zen -geleerde en ons toerleier. Op die agtergrond is die Yi -rivier.

Hierdie standbeeld van Vairocana Boeddha is 57 voet lank, die grootste standbeeld by Longmen. Hierdie grot word in opdrag van keiserin Wu Zetian beskou as die uiteindelike argitektoniese uitdrukking van die Tang -dinastie.

Ons het gevind dat sy gesig baie aangenaam was. Daar word vermoed dat die Boeddha gesny is om soos die keiserin te lyk en dat dit die Chinese Mona Lisa genoem is.

In die indrukwekkende grot word die Vairocana Boeddha beskerm deur hierdie vurige voog.

Ons het gedink aan adventskalenders, met al die klein gesnyde nisse.

Hoe gelukkig voel ons tog om sulke ongelooflike en inspirerende Boeddhistiese beelde te kan sien!


Ontdekking en herlewing

Gedurende die laat negentiende eeu en vroeë twintigste eeu het Westerse ontdekkingsreisigers belangstelling getoon in die ou Silk Road en die verlore stede in Sentraal -Asië, en diegene wat deur Dunhuang gegaan het, het die muurskilderye en artefakte soos die Stele of Sulaiman in Mogao opgemerk. Die grootste ontdekking kom egter van 'n Chinese Taoïs met die naam Wang Yuanlu, wat homself rondom die eeuwisseling as voog van sommige van hierdie tempels aangestel het.

Sommige van die grotte is toe deur sand versper, en Wang was besig om die sand skoon te maak en het probeer om die terrein te herstel. In een so 'n grot, op 25 Junie 1900, ontdek Wang 'n ommuurde gebied agter die een kant van 'n gang wat na 'n hoofgrot lei. Agter die muur was 'n klein grot gevul met 'n enorme menigte manuskripte. In die volgende paar jaar het Wang 'n paar manuskripte geneem om aan verskillende amptenare te wys wat verskillende belangstellings toon, maar in 1904 verseël Wang die grot op 'n bevel van die goewerneur van Gansu.

Woorde se ontdekking het die aandag getrek van 'n gesamentlike Britse/Indiese groep onder leiding van die Hongaarse argeoloog Aurel Stein wat in 1907 op 'n argeologiese ekspedisie in die gebied was. Stein het met Wang onderhandel om hom toe te laat om 'n aansienlike aantal manuskripte sowel as die die beste skilderye en tekstiele teen betaling. Hy word gevolg deur 'n Franse ekspedisie onder Paul Pelliot wat in 1908 baie duisende items aangeskaf het, en daarna 'n Japannese ekspedisie onder Otani Kozui in 1911 en 'n Russiese ekspedisie onder Sergei F. Oldenburg in 1914. 'n Bekende geleerde Luo Zhenyu redigeer sommige van die manuskripte wat Pelliot verkry het in 'n bundel wat daarna in 1909 gepubliseer is as "Manuskripte van die Dunhuang -grotte" (敦煌 石室 遺書).

Stein en Pelliot het groot belangstelling in die Weste oor die Dunhuang -grotte gewek, maar aanvanklik was daar min belangstelling in amptelike kringe in China. Bekommerd dat die oorblywende manuskripte verlore kan gaan, het Luo Zhenyu en ander die Ministerie van Onderwys oorreed om die res van die manuskripte wat in 1910 na Peking (Beijing) gestuur moet word, te herstel. Maar nie al die oorblywende manuskripte is na Peking geneem nie, en diegene wat opgespoor is, is sommige gesteel. Sommige van die grotte is beskadig toe die grotte in 1921 deur die plaaslike owerheid gebruik is om Russiese soldate te huisves wat uit die burgeroorlog gevlug het ná die Russiese Revolusie. In 1924 het die Amerikaanse ontdekkingsreisiger Langdon Warner 'n aantal muurskilderye sowel as 'n standbeeld uit sommige van die grotte verwyder. Die situasie het in 1941 verbeter, toe die skilder Zhang Daqian met 'n klein span assistente by die grotte aangekom het en twee en 'n half jaar lank gebly het om die muurskilderye te herstel en te kopieer. Daarna het hy die kopieë van die muurskilderye uitgestal en gepubliseer, wat gehelp het om die kuns van Dunhuang in China bekend te maak en baie bekendheid te verleen. Historikus Xiang Da het Yu Youren, 'n prominente lid van die Kuomintang (Chinese nasionalistiese party), toe oorreed om in 1944 'n instelling, Research Institute of Dunhuang Art (wat later die Dunhuang Academy geword het) in Mogao op te rig om die terrein op te pas en die inhoud daarvan. In 1956 het die eerste premier van die Volksrepubliek China, Zhou Enlai, persoonlik belang gestel in die grotte en 'n toelae goedgekeur om die terrein te herstel en te beskerm, en in 1961 word die Mogao -grotte verklaar as 'n spesiaal beskermde historiese monument deur die Staatsraad, en grootskaalse opknappingswerk in Mogao het kort daarna begin. Die terrein het ontsnap aan die wydverspreide skade wat tydens die kulturele rewolusie aangerig is.

Vandag is die terrein die onderwerp van 'n deurlopende argeologiese projek. Die Mogao -grotte het in 1987 een van die UNESCO -wêrelderfenisgebiede geword. Van 1988 tot 1995 is 'n verdere 248 grotte in die noorde van die 487 grotte wat sedert die vroeë 1900's bekend was, ontdek.


Chinese legendes – Die eerste keiser en Shaolin -tempel

As kind was ek nog altyd gefassineer deur verhale oor Marco Polo se reise en die Silk Route. Die geleentheid het in 2011 gekom en ons moes op ons eie reis na die Weste gaan. Die eerste stop was Xi ’an, die ou hoofstad van China en die rusplek van die eerste keiser van China, Qin Shihuang, en sy leër van terracotta -krygers. Hierdie stad is ook een van die stopplekke langs die ou syroete. Ongelukkig het die reis al sleg begin toe ons vlug na Beijing vertraag is weens slegte weer. Uiteindelik het ons ons aansluitingsvlug na Xi ’an misgeloop en moes tand en spyker saam met 'n horde kwaai Chinese reisigers baklei om transferkaartjies vir 'n ander vlug te bekom. Ek salueer die personeel van Air China. Hierdie dames kan 'n kwaai en ongeduldige menigte passasiers in die gesig staar en steeds so goed soos hulle opdis.

Xi ’an

Uiteindelik arriveer ons in Xi ’an na 'n vertraging van 6 uur vanaf ons geskeduleerde tyd. Dit het beteken dat ons op ons eerste dag nie veel kon sien nie. Gelukkig was dit somer en was daar langer dae wat die vertraging vergoed, aangesien ons meer tyd gehad het om te sien.

Uitsig oor die trommeltoring, gesien vanaf die kloktoring. Die antieke klokkie is nog steeds hier, en nee, hulle sal my nie laat lui nie. Een van die belangrikste poorte van die stad. U kan u voorstel dat die motors in die ou tyd vervang sou word met perde en karre.

Die kloktoring is in die middel van die stad geleë en paaie lei van hier na die noord-, suid-, oostelike en westelike hekke.

Xi ’an het ook 'n aansienlike Moslem -gemeenskap en ons stap na Moslemstraat waar daar talle winkels en restaurante is wat Moslem -kos bedien.

Baie toeriste langs Moslemstraat en om die hitte te klop, word gedoen deur u broek en hemde op te rol. Die baie prominente tipe ongesuurde brood wat algemeen in hierdie streek voorkom. Ons het hierdie restaurant gevind wat vol mense was. Hulle spesialiteit was lamskebabs.

Gelukkig vir ons het ons 'n gelisensieerde toergids raakgeloop wat sy gaste by ons hotel gaan aflaai het. Nadat ons met hom onderhandel het, het ons hom die volgende dag op 'n toer laat neem.

Die eerste stop was Banpo Museum. Dit is die plek van 'n neolitiese dorpie wat meer as 6000 jaar oud is. Dit is belangrik, want dit toon aan dat daar reeds 'n beskawing gevestig was lank voordat keiser Qin Shihuang gekom het.

Nie meer oor na meer as 6 millennia nie. Ek weet dit is verlore in vertaling, maar dit is lekker om te weet dat hulle 6 000 jaar gelede breëband gehad het.

Uiteindelik het ons by die terra cotta -krygers gekom. In die somer was die temperatuur alreeds 35 ° C en die toerismeskare het groot hoeveelhede opgebou. Die bataljons toeriste moes meer getel het as die terra cotta -leër.

Een van die groot sale wat die 1 van die vier argeologiese opgrawings van die Terra Cotta Warriors beslaan. U sien die nabygeleë foto's van die opgegrawe terrakotta -figure, wat wissel van soldate tot skrifgeleerdes tot perde. Die hoeveelheid vakmanskap in elke figuur is ongelooflik. Die perde vir die koninklike wa is so lewe soos op hierdie foto. Uiteindelik moet ons die opgrawingsplek binnegaan. Die grootte van die saal is geweldig, en dit is slegs 1 van 4 plekke. Daar is baie meer terreine wat ontdek is, maar nie opgegrawe is nie. Elke terracotta -vegter het sy eie unieke gelaatstrekke en uitdrukking. Geen twee figure het dieselfde gesig nie. Baie van die terrakotta -figure is oor die duisende jare beskadig. Die beskadigde figure word noukeurig gerekonstrueer en teruggeplaas in die put waar dit gevind is.

Daar word erken dat Qin Shihuang die man is wat China uit baie strydende state tot 'n groot land verenig het, en ook met die bou van die Groot Muur van China. Ten spyte van sy prestasies, was hy ook 'n wrede keiser wat baie van sy landgenote vermoor het deur hulle tot slawerny te druk om die Groot Muur en ook sy graf te bou. Hy was ook bang vir die dood en soek tevergeefs na onsterflikheidspille en drankies. As gevolg van sy groot prestasies en sy swakhede, het hy 'n soort legende geword, uitgebeeld as 'n redder of as 'n tiran in baie Chinese films, afhangende van hoe die regisseur die plot wil skeef trek.

Die werklike graf van die eerste keiser, Qin Shihuang, is in 'n groot mausoleum onder 'n groot heuwel waar daar geglo word dat hy begrawe is met nog meer terracotta -leërs. Die terra cotta -krygers wat ontdek is, is slegs een van die vele garnisoene wat die graf bewaak. Volgens antieke tekste word die graf van die keiser uitgelê as 'n miniatuurkaart van China met vloeiende riviere en seë van vloeibaar kwik en beskerm deur baie strikke. Dit klink regtig na iets uit 'n Indiana Jones- of Tomb Raider -film. Ons sal miskien nooit weet of ou legendes waar is nie, aangesien die graf nie oopgemaak is nie uit vrees vir agteruitgang van die oorblyfsels sodra dit aan die lug blootgestel is. Argeoloë het egter ontdek dat die grond rondom die graf buitengewoon hoë kwikkonsentrasies bevat, en grondskanderingradar het 'n groot paleisstyl onthul, sodat die ou legendes waar kan wees.

Net die besoek van hierdie 2 plekke het die hele dag geneem. Ons het teruggekeer na die hotel om af te koel voordat ons die aand na die Big Wild Goose Pagoda en die musikale fontein gegaan het. Hierdie musikale fontein beweer dat dit die grootste in Asië is en beslaan 15 000 vierkante meter.

Ons het vroeg gekom om 'n goeie uitkykpunt te vind om na die musikale fontein te kyk. Ten spyte van 'n goeie plek, het ek besef dat almal in die eerste rye 'n gratis bad kry elke keer as die sentrale straal water skiet en die wind in ons rigting waai. Ek het besluit om agterna te sit na 'n paar baddens. Die skare was meer as bly om my plek oor te neem en nat te word.

Luoyang

Luoyang is meer as 500 km van Xi ’an af, maar met die nuwe hoëspoedrail het dit net 2 uur geneem om hier te kom. Hierdie plek is bekend vir die Longmen -grotte en is ook die vertrekpunt om die Shaolin -tempel te besoek. My droom om Shaolin kungfu te leer, het uiteindelik waar geword. Ons het probeer om 'n ander gids vir die besoek te kry, maar ons het net 'n bestuurder en 'n minibus gekry.

Die Chinese hoëspoedrail by Luoyang -stasie. Longmen Grottoes loop langs die rivier en is 'n reeks grotte met Boeddhistiese kuns wat in die kransvlak uitgekerf is en dateer uit 437 nC. Die middelpunt van die Longmen -grotte is hierdie reuse -standbeelde wat in die kranse gegraveer is.

Na die vermoeiende staptog en klim van talle trappe, besluit ons om die boot terug te neem na die beginpunt waar ons bestuurder op ons wag. Net 'n klein gedeelte van die Longmen Grottoes.

Vanaf Longmen Grottoes was dit nog 'n lang rit na Shaolin -tempel. Ons afwagting was besig om op te bou soos ons so baie oor hierdie plek gesien en gehoor het uit al die verskillende kungfu -films.

Die hoofpoort van Shaolin wat na die tempel lei. Ons moes die toegangskaartjies hier koop. Wat bedoel jy, moet ons kaartjies koop om 'n tempel binne te gaan? Dus het ons die toegangskaartjies gekoop en toe weer betaal vir kaartjies om aan boord van die elektriese trem te kom wat toeriste van die hoofhek na die tempel vervoer. Dit lyk meer na 'n toneel uit 'n kungfu -film. Die gids verduidelik dat hierdie gate in die boomstamme gemaak is deur monnike wat die Shaolin -vingerpons beoefen het. Na baie jare en baie studente later, kry u hierdie gate. Die depressies in die vloer word veroorsaak deur die baie monnike wat geoefen het deur hier met hul voete te stamp. Dit was te sien in die Shaolin -kungfu -film met Jet Li. Wat ons kom sien het, is 'n bietjie kungfu. Ja, ons moes weer betaal om na die program te kyk. Die Pagoda Forest buite Shaolin. Dit is ook te sien in die Shaolin -kungfu -film.

Ek kan nie anders as om die gevoel te kry dat Shaolin Temple 'n kommersiële onderneming geword het wat sy handelsnaam benut nie. Die besoek aan die tempel het gevoel asof ek in 'n soort kungfu -pretpark was, met monnike wat die rolle van parkwagters neem wat geld insamel. Ek dink puriste sal teleurgesteld wees, maar vir die res van ons wat net 'n smaak van Shaolin wil hê, sal dit moet gebeur.

Longmen Grottoes en Shaolin Temple kan bereik word tydens 'n daguitstappie vanaf Xi ’an, maar as u meer tyd op elke plek wil deurbring, beveel ek aan dat u in Luoyang oornag.

So, 2 van die grootste legendes in die Chinese geskiedenis wat tot lewe kan kom. Die volgende deel van hierdie blog gaan oor Xinjiang, die geheimsinnige land in die Weste wat legendes bevat.


Notas

Die Longmen Grottoes Digital Retrieval Project is begin in die Verenigde State tydens 'n werkswinkel aan die Harvard Universiteit in 2017. Sien 'Longmen Grottoes: New Perspectives', nuusbrief van die International Institute for Asian Studies 79 (lente 2018) vir 'n oorsig van die geleentheid. : 19. Beelde van Longmen in Amerikaanse versamelings wat ondergaan is, bevat stukke in die Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, Kansas City, en die Freer and Sackler Galleries van die Smithsonian.

Vanweë die monumentale grootte van die gerestoureerde reliëfbeelde uit die Binyang Central Cave, is die beeldhouwerke nog nie onderworpe aan bewaringsanalise nie, wat nuttig kan wees om te onderskei tussen restaurasiegebiede en oorspronklike klip, soos röntgenondersoek. Vanweë die aard van die klipvulling wat in sommige van die gerestoureerde stukke gebruik word, kan die resultate van hierdie toetse in sekere gevalle onoortuigend wees.

Vir 'n oorsig van die tweestadige herstel van die keiserinprosessie, sien Fletcher Coleman, "Fragments and Traces: Reconstituting Offering Procession of the Empress as Donor with Her Court," Orientations 49, no. 3 (Mei/Junie 2018): 94–101. Sien bladsy 95 van daardie artikel vir ander bronne oor die versameling van die keiserin -proses -fragmente.

Coleman, "Fragmente en spore," 96–99.

Die drie belangrikste vroeë Chinese vertalings van die sutra -teks word gevind in Taishō shinshū Daizōkyō, red. Takakusu Junjirō en Watanabe Kaigyoku (Tokio: Taishō Issaikyō Kankōkai, 1924–32), tekste 474–76. Vir 'n algemene oorsig van die Vimalakīrti -debatstoneel en die betekenis daarvan, sien Amy McNair, The Donors of Longmen: Faith, Politics, and Patronage in Medieval Chinese Buddhist Sculpture (Honolulu: University of Hawai'i Press, 2007), 42–47.

Soos op die foto (figuur 7) ontbreek, benewens die volledige figuur van die dissipel Śāriputra, verskeie hoofde van die hooffigure in die Mañjuśrī -tablo.

Die vroeë belang van die Fogg-museum in die verligting het aan die lig gekom na Sickman se dood in 1988. Vermelding van die finansiële betrokkenheid van die museum by die insameling van die keiserinprosessie kan gevind word in Michael Churchman en Scott Erbes, High Ideals and Aspirations: The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, 1933–1993 (Kansas City, MO: Nelson-Atkins Musem of Art, 1993), 50–51 en Karl E. Meyer en Shareen Blair Brysac, The China Collectors: America's Century-Long Hunt for Asian Art Treasures (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), 92–95. Verdere besonderhede van die primêre dokumentasie wat nie in hierdie bronne behandel word nie, word hier verskaf.

Sien die uitruil van korrespondensie in Box 84, Folder 1909–1911, Papers of Edward Waldo Forbes, 1867-2005 (HC 2), Harvard Art Museums Archives, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Met verwysing na die gevoel van Warner en Sickman dat "dit baie jammer sou wees om hierdie groep figure in twee stukke te skei", het Forbes aangebied om die hele groep van Gardner te bekom en die Nelson -deel van die uitgawes te vergoed. Sien Edward W. Forbes aan Paul Gardner, 2 Februarie 1940, Box 50, Folders 1214–1215, Papers of Edward Waldo Forbes.

In die besonder het Gardner en Forbes gestry oor die onderskeie betrokkenheid van Sickman en Warner by die verkryging van die fragmente. Sien Paul Gardner aan Edward W. Forbes, 8 April 1940, Box 50, Folders 1214–1215, Papers of Edward Waldo Forbes Edward W. Forbes aan Paul Gardner, 16 April 1940, Box 50, Folders 1214–1215, Papers of Edward Waldo Forbes en Edward W. Forbes aan Paul Gardner, 18 April 1940, Box 50, Folders 1214–1215, Papers of Edward Waldo Forbes.

In 'n reeks persoonlike uitruilings het Sickman 'n hartstogtelike pleidooi tot Warner gerig om die Nelson Gallery se regte op die stuk te ondersteun, veral op grond van die verspreiding van belangstelling in Chinese kuns na die Amerikaanse Midde -Weste. Sien Laurence Sickman aan Langdon Warner, 11 Junie 1940, Box 2, Folder 74, Langdon Warner Papers (MS AM 3138), Houghton Library, Cambridge, Massachusetts en Langdon Warner aan Laurence Sickman, 18 Junie 1940, Box 2b, Folder 4, Laurence Sickman Papers (MS 001), Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art Archives, Kansas City, Missouri.

Vir die oorspronklike brief van Forbes aan Gardner (waarvan verskeie koolstofkopieë in verskillende argiewe ingesluit is), sien Edward W. Forbes aan Paul Gardner, 26 Junie 1940, Box 2, Folder “Sickman B,” Laurence Sickman Miscellaneous Documents, Nelson- Atkins Museum of Art Archives, Kansas City, Missouri. Ek vind die foto wat in die brief genoem word, in 'Photographs of Langdon Warner', vak 13 FV9FKGK, Fine Arts Library Visual Collections, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.

Otto Burchard aan Laurence Sickman, 16 September 1939, Box 1a, Folder 32, Laurence Sickman Papers (MS 001).

'N Onverwerkte versameling Sickman-vraestelle by die Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art Archives is onder my aandag gebring na die aanvanklike publikasie van my artikel "Fragments and Traces" (sien nota 3 hierbo). Die grootste deel van die inligting wat hier aangebied word, kom uit hierdie materiaal.

Vir die probleme waarmee Burchard in Duitsland te kampe het en die verhuis van sy bedrywighede na Stockholm in 1934, sien Laurence Sickman na Paul Gardner, 7 November 1934, vak 1, gids "Laurence Sickman en Langdon Warner na Paul Gardner, 1934," Laurence Sickman Diverse Dokumente Otto Burchard aan Laurence Sickman, 13 Mei 1940, Box 1a, Folder 30, Laurence Sickman Papers (MS 001) en Otto Burchard aan Laurence Sickman, 16 Junie 1941, Box 1a, Folder 30, Laurence Sickman Papers (MS 001).

“Verslagvorm TFR — 300 -reeks A: Te gebruik deur (1) individuele nasies wat nie betrokke is by sakeondernemings nie, en (2) ander persone om eiendomsbelange van sulke onderdane aan te meld,” raam 1, vouer “Vimalakirti Correspondence 1943 –1944, ”Laurence Sickman Diverse dokumente.

Sien "Verslagvorm TFR -300 -reeks A" in die vorige aantekening, asook vak 1, vouer "Burchard, dr. Otto, 1946," Laurence Sickman Diverse dokumente en "Departement van justisie aan Laurence Sickman," 13 Mei 1955, Box 1a, Folder 17, Laurence Sickman Papers (MS 001).

Langdon Warner aan Laurence Sickman, 30 Julie 1940, Box 2b, Folder 4, Laurence Sickman Papers (MS 001).

Langdon Warner aan Laurence Sickman, 2 September 1941, Box 2b, Folder 4, Laurence Sickman Papers (MS 001).

Laurence Sickman aan Mathias Komor, 6 Februarie 1942, Box 1, Folder “Vimalakirti Correspondence 1943–1944,” Laurence Sickman Diverse dokumente.

Burchard se gesondheidskwessies en komplikasies tydens die Tweede Wêreldoorlog word genoem in 'n reeks briewe tussen verskillende individue oor 'n tydperk van ongeveer 1939 tot 1946. Sien Otto Burchard aan Laurence Sickman, 3 Oktober 1946, oor sy voorlaaste operasie en naoorlogse oorgang na New York, Box 1, Folder "Burchard, Dr. Otto, 1946," Laurence Sickman Diverse dokumente.

Mathias Komor aan Lindsay Hughes, 19 Junie 1944, Box 1, Folder “Correspondence Mathias Komor 1941–1944,” Laurence Sickman Diverse dokumente.

Langdon Warner aan Laurence Sickman, 30 Junie 1944, Box 2b, Folder 4, Laurence Sickman Papers (MS 001).

H.D. Weiser aan Myron S. Falk Jr., 21 Augustus 1945, voorwerplêer F2001.7, Freer and Sackler Galleries, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Sien dieselfde gids vir die oorspronklike veilingkennisgewing en verkoopbrief.

Vir meer inligting oor die leningsversoek en die oorspronklike kwitansie vir lenings, sien Mathias Komor aan Myron S. Falk Jr., 31 Julie 1945 Alan Priest aan majoor Falk, 8 Augustus 1945 en die Metropolitan Museum of Art -leningskwitansie vir majoor en mev. Myron S. Falk Jr., 28 Augustus 1945, voorwerplêer F2001.7, Freer and Sackler Galleries.

Vir briewe tussen Burchard en Sickman waarin die uitval tussen die twee mans oor die beslaglegging en verkoop van die Vimalakīrti -reliëf uiteengesit word, sien raam 1, vouer “Burchard, dr. Otto, 1946,” Laurence Sickman Diverse dokumente. Oor die vergoeding wat Burchard vir die verligting ontvang het, sien Departement van Justisie aan Laurence Sickman, 13 Mei 1955, Box 1a, Folder 17, Laurence Sickman Papers (MS 001). Sien die jaarverslag van die Office of Alien Property, 1955 (Washington, DC: Departement van Justisie, 1955), 110 vir 'n bevestiging van die bedrag en datum van die terugbetaling van Burchard.

Langdon Warner aan Laurence Sickman, 2 September 1941, Box 2b, Folder 4, Laurence Sickman Papers (MS 001).

Otto Burchard aan Laurence Sickman, 5 Julie 1946, Box 1, Folder “Burchard, Dr. Otto, 1946,” Laurence Sickman Diverse dokumente.

E. Pearlstein en R. Lowinger, "Conservation of a Chinese Cave Relief", Feb. – Aug. 1980, voorwerplêer F2001.7, Freer and Sackler Galleries. Dokumentasie van Mathias Komor dui aan dat hy ook met die hulp van die Katayama Art Studio herstelwerk aan die reliëf vergemaklik het nadat Myron S. Falk Jr. die stuk gekoop het en voordat dit aan die Metropolitan Museum geleen is. Sien Mathias Komor by majoor Falk, 18 April 1945, voorwerplêer F2001.7, Freer and Sackler Galleries.

Pearlstein en Lowinger, "Bewaring van 'n Chinese grotverligting," 2-3.

Sien byvoorbeeld 'n beroemde brief waarin Warner die resultate van die tweede herstel van die keiserin -proses -verligting effens prys: Langdon Warner aan Laurence Sickman, 29 Augustus 1940, Box 2b, Folder 4, Laurence Sickman Papers (MS 001).

In 'n gedeeltelik volledige brief blykbaar van Laurence Sickman aan een van die direkteure van die Nelson Gallery (waarskynlik Paul Gardner), waarin die skrywer oorweeg om 'n bod op die Vimalakīrti -verligting te plaas, nadat hy twyfel uitgespreek het oor die bedrag van die bod, sê die skrywer , "Hierdie klip is gebreek en sal herstelwerk en bevestigings moet doen, en dan is alles wat ons sou hê, 'n kop en ons het tien daarvan in die Relief of the Empress." Ongetekende en ongedateerde brief, boks 2, vouer “Sickman A”, Laurence Sickman Diverse dokumente.

Langdon Warner aan Laurence Sickman, 6 Junie 1934, Box 2, Folder “Letters to File”, Laurence Sickman Diverse dokumente.

Warner se vroeë houding ten opsigte van herstel, sowel as dié van sy sterstudente soos Sickman, weerspieël sekere negentiende- en vroeë twintigste-eeuse sienings oor die opvoedkundige rol van gipsmonumente. Vir 'n oorsig van hierdie idees, sien Fletcher Coleman, "Encountering Chinese Sculpture in America: The Early Pedagogy and Exhibition of Monumental Ink Rubbings from Longmen," Orientations 51, no. 1 (Jan./Feb. 2020): 90–100.

Oor die veranderende houding ten opsigte van die herstel van fragmente in klassieke beeldhouwerk, sien Glenn Most, "On Fragments" en William Tronzo, "The Cortile delle Statue: Collecting Fragments, inducing Images" in The Fragment: An Incomplete History, ed. William Tronzo (Los Angeles: The Getty Research Institute, 2009), 9–22, 39–60.

Die terme "fragmentaries" en "volledig" word hier gebruik om te verwys na die relatiewe ongeskiktheid van die Vimalakīrti- en keiserin -prosessie -reliëf na verwydering en herstel. It must be acknowledged that, no matter how complete the stone fragments contained within the restored reliefs are individually, removed from the Binyang Central Cave, they remain incomplete from their original context. Regarding the nature of the fragmentary state as it pertains to Buddhist sculpture, Gregory Levine of the University of California, Berkeley, has presented extensively as part of an ongoing project entitled “Buddha Heads: Fragments and Landscapes.”

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China’s Buddhist caves: the enduring art of the Silk Road

The Silk Road is well-known as being one of the world’s earliest trade routes, allowing the exchange of goods between China and Europe, via Central Asia. And it was along the Silk Road that Buddhism began spreading into China from India as early as the first century AD. With it came the idea of constructing temples and holy sites by hollowing out rock faces: Buddhist caves and mural art spread across China in this way.

Hundreds of these magnificent cave art sites, or grottoes, still dot mountainsides and rock faces across China, housing impressive sculptures and vivid murals that are thousands of years old. Not only are these sites evidence of their creators’ dedication to their faith, they also offer a fascinating glimpse into the multicultural society that thrived for a thousand years along the once mighty Silk Road trade route that connected east and west.

Stories of the Silk Road

China’s Buddhist caves were often chosen for their scenic beauty, sometimes by travelling monks who had had visions at a particular spot or who were attracted by its spiritual aura. Within the excavated caves, which would take years to hollow out, monks and other followers would carve thousands of Buddhas, bodhisattvas (spiritual beings on the path to becoming Buddhas), apsaras (heavenly nymphs) and celestial musicians. These would be painted and highlighted in explosions of colour made from precious materials like lapis lazuli, indigo and real gold traded along the Silk Road. Alongside these heavenly beings, however, more down to earth details were also depicted – Central Asian merchants, Indian monks in white robes and Chinese peasants working in the fields. These portraits of average travellers from bygone times have sat quietly in grottoes throughout western China, preserved for generations to come.

Many Buddhist caves in China became the focus of worship and meditation not only for the communities of monks who would reside there, but also for visiting pilgrims and traders. Indeed, many of the temples and holy sites on the Silk Road were used by merchants as banks or warehouses. They would be centres of religious practice and cultural exchange, as well as valued stop-off points on the long, dangerous routes through central China. Over the years, more and more cave sites, stretching further away from the Silk Road and deeper into China, would be excavated and decorated, matching closely the spread and acceptance of Buddhism across the country and showing an incredible development and change in artistic style as they moved.

As the millennia passed, however, and trade along the Silk Road lessened (thanks to increased sea transportation), many of the caves were abandoned or fell into disrepair. Others were destroyed as cultural shifts in China meant that different religions and new ways of worship came to dominate certain parts of the country. Many Silk Road caves were looted for their treasures or cast from the cultural consciousness, becoming buried by the desert sands from which they were carved. It wasn’t until the 19th century that the caves began to be opened up again, as explorers and archaeologists from China and around the world started to rediscover their hidden treasures.

Most well-preserved Buddhist caves in China today

The enduring Buddhist caves in China are mainly scattered throughout the far west, mainly in Xinjiang, Gansu and the Yellow and Yangzi River regions. Many are listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, housing unique sculptures and murals in varying states of preservation.

What connects them all is their important place in the story of Buddhism and multiculturalism in China. They are among the world’s greatest monuments to faith and the way in which humans always have, and continue to, share and transmit new ideas.

There are many grottoes and cave art sites across the country that are open to the public. Here are our choices of some of the most interesting Buddhist caves in China.

Mogao Grottoes

Hewn into eastern slope of the evocatively named Rattling Sand Mountain near Dunhuang in Gansu province, the Mogao Grottoes are one of the most important collections of Buddhist art in the world. Situated at a strategic point along the Silk Road, at a crossroads of trade as well as religious, cultural and intellectual influences, the grottoes first began being carved in 366 AD by a monk named Yue Seng. The artwork here reached its creative peak during the Tang dynasty (618–907), when the area housed 18 monasteries, more than 1400 monks and nuns, and countless artists, translators and calligraphers.

Nowadays, around 500 cave cells and sanctuaries survive and are prized for the statues and wall paintings, spanning 1,000 years of Buddhist art, preserved within. Protected under UNESCO World Heritage status, the caves at Mogao show the evolution of religious art along this part of the Silk Road, and provide a literal vivid picture of medieval politics, economics, culture, arts, religion, ethnic relations and daily dress in western China.

Bingling Si

Accessible mainly by boat, and hidden in an arid gorge formed by the Yellow River, Bingling Si in Gansu province certainly wins the prize for most spectacular location. The site's desert isolation not only provides an adventurous journey to reach it, but it also means it is one of the few Buddhist cave sites to have survived the ravages of time and human interference relatively intact.

Over a period of 1600 years, starting from around 420 AD, daring sculptors dangled from ropes to carve almost 200 niches and 700 sculptures into the steep canyon walls. Their sculptures show differing cultural and physical features, with the earliest carved with clear Indian influence. The most spectacular sculpture here is the 27m-high seated statue of Maitreya, the future Buddha, but some of the smaller bodhisattvas and guardians are equally impressive in their tiny detailing. It’s a challenge to find the smallest one, which measures just 25 centimetres in height!

Kizil Thousand Buddha Caves

The Kizil Thousand Buddha Caves in the far western Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region are believed to be the earliest Buddhist cave complex in China. They were started in the 3rd century BC and reached their height between the 5th and 13th centuries, when Buddhism was the dominant faith in the area.

While not many of the caves are open to the public, those that are contain colourful murals depicting a variety of religious themes, ranging from the life of the Buddha to stories about the nature of karma. Many of these are painted in the shocking blue tinge of lapis lazuli, a semi-precious rock prized for its intense colour – one of the most precious commodities traded on the Silk Road at that time. What’s particularly interesting about the murals here is that most lack any clear Chinese influence in their style. The presence of Afghan, Persian and Indian elements in the murals indicate that they were produced at an early date by western travellers passing just passing through.

Yungang Caves

The 51,000 statues and carvings in the 5th-century Yungang Caves, in Shanxi province, are simply magnificent. They were predominately carved during the Northern Wei dynasty (386-534), when nearby Datong was the capital of the Turkic-speaking Tuoba clan that ruled China. The dynasty was one of the earliest in Chinese history to adopt Buddhism as their state religion and many of the caves at Yungang were constructed under the supervision and support of the imperial court.

The sculptors here drew inspiration from Indian, Persian and even Greek influences to create their masterpieces. Despite the centuries that have passed since their creation, many of the statues and frescoes at Yungang still retain their gloriously vivid colours. Beautifully painted images of animals, birds and angels fill the walls, while almost every cave contains depictions of tiny Buddhas seated in niches, also known as the ‘1000-Buddha motif’.

Longmen Grottoes

The grottoes at Longmen, located a few kilometres south of Luoyang in Henan province, were started in around 494 AD, after the capital was moved from Datong. As well as being some of the most beautiful representations of ancient Chinese stone art, the statues and inscriptions within the caves provide a window into the political, cultural and artistic environments of that early time. Many of the statues in the oldest grottoes were commissioned by the royal court as a way to honour their ancestors.

The grottoes were maintained and developed over a period of around 200 years, reaching their zenith in 675 AD with the completion of the extraordinary Fengxiansi Cave. It’s an awe-inspiring experience to gaze up at the cave’s colossal statue of Vairocana Buddha, flanked on one side by disciples and bodhisattvas, and by heavenly kings and guardians on the other. The face of the Buddha is said to have been modelled on Tang empress and Buddhist patron Wu Zetian, the first empress regnant in China, who funded its carving.

Maijishan Grottoes

Another series of grottoes set into a cliff face so steep you genuinely wonder how they were carved in the first place, Maijishan has over 221 caves and niches that hold around 7800 sculptures. A series of vertiginous scaffolding walkways and stairwells connects visitors up and around the site, to peer into tiny caves for glimpses at Buddhas and bodhisattvas, some dating all the way back to the 4th century AD. The site was continually added to as trade through the region brought visitors – he towering 15.7m Buddha flanked by two bodhisattvas carved into the cliffside was added a little 'later' during the Sui dynasty (581–618). During the 1980s, restoration works on the site revealed a treasure folded away within the Buddha's fan: a handwritten copy of the Sutra of Golden Light.

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An Unusual Dark Grey Stone Head of a Female Attendant, Tang Dynasty (618-907), possibly Longmen Caves

An Unusual Dark Grey Stone Head of a Female Attendant, Tang Dynasty (618-907), possibly Longmen Caves

Carved as if facing slightly to the right, with small chin, well-defined mouth and slightly open eyes below curved brows, the hair drawn up into two topknots, with remains of pigment and earth accretions, the back sheared off. 14 in. (35.5 cm.) high, stand. Estimate $20,000 - $30,000

Herkoms: J.T. Tai & Co., New York, prior to 1975.

Notas: Fragments of secular figures within processions of donors are among the rarest surviving carvings removed from the Longmen grottoes, Henan province. This head of a young girl has her hair dressed in an elaborate double-topknot with looping braids which can be seen on contemporaneous Tang sancai wares, but which is clearly derived from Northern Wei prototypes, such as those on the famous panels of the processions of Emperor Wenzhao and Empress Xiaowen flanking the entrance to Cave 140, now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and the Nelson-Atkins Museum, Kansas City, respectively. See S. Di, Comprehensive Illustrated Catalogue of Chinese Buddhist Statues in Overseas Collections, vol. II, Beijing, 2005, pp. 341-5. Retinues of female donors may be seen on caves executed during the Tang dynasty in historical photographs taken by Eduoard Chavannes in 1907. See Missions archeologiques francaises en Chine: Photographies et itineraires, 1907 - 1923, Paris, 2004, p. 69, which may be a view of the Southern Binyang Cave, Cave 159. Compare, also, a kneeling female donor in Niche 328, which also appears on the proper left wall of the cave entrance and facing in (thus to her left), illustrated in Complete Works of Statues in Longmen Grottoes, vol. 2, Beijing, 2002, p. 109, figs. 291-2 and another in Cave 362 and Niche 363, p. 133, fig. 356, and p. 141, fig. 381, respectively.


The ancient city of Luoyang Culinary Arts Festival

Luoyang is a city bearing too much glory, down 5,000 years of history and it has many adhesions, monuments, art, gourmet food.

In a fiery day I set foot on this ancient city, feel the breath, trying to constantly walk to experience one of the most beautiful in Luoyang.

Luoyang water banquet · Culinary Arts Festival

Luoyang should really do taste the food be?

Is, of course, through the Tang dynasty have a Royal feast, in Luoyang water banquet of boiling broth in water to get the greatest satisfaction, making the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, full enjoyment.

• Peony flower food “Peony”, regardless of length, Luoyang. Water banquet cuisine, fine to let people not chopsticks.

Luoyang water banquet began in the Tang dynasty, and accurately is Empress Wu after the capital Luoyang.

Luoyang drier, so people dietary meal are soups. There was a joke, said Luoyang people meeting and greeting people, not asking, “have you eaten yet? “But” did you eat soup? ”。 Luoyang soups is a long-standing tradition of eating habits.

To curry favor with Empress Wu moved the capital to the diet has to be ill, people try every trick, collecting and improving, and finally achievement was the female Emperor in favor of the Luoyang water banquet. Soon, the Palace water Gallery into a community, has a long history, as food culture of Luoyang’s most classic works.

Water table has two meanings: first, soup is good at, and the other is eating one-for-one and water in General.

At present, the Luoyang water banquet as a kind of national intangible cultural heritage both at home and abroad.

The water banquet to go to taste the most authentic classic, non-Luoyang “really different” qualifies here has received many foreign guests.

We are in the “very different” rooms and antique, display many Guttau. The seat and Red napkins on the table is beautiful unique shape, each stack of law are not the same. Visually stunning enjoyment, and soon four meat and four four-point total of 12 cold dish Apex up, happy taste buds begin to boil.

• These are just an appetizer dish.

▲ Look at the “singing”. Such as “foreplay” dish, even the styling is so beautiful, and way delicious, really enjoy the feeling of the Emperor, each dish taste that I couldn’t even eat, stay room, the next course is delighted.

About each food represents different meanings, wore dresses of the Tang Dynasty Palace staff will explain one by one, and I just eat food give the meaning of no mind that enjoyment of food gives me is not falling as they have.

Hawthorn Sydney “cake”, and cuttlefish, and duck Chin, and bar Yam · · · · · ·, each together food are is ever I eat had of similar food material in the cooking have best of, and each road food are so of right can meet we of needs, like in hot of summer eat Shang appetizer solutions summer of Sydney Hawthorn, articulate between of wonderful enjoy temporarily Zhijian to described.

Even more rare food can satisfy the needs of all flavors, sweet and sour, salt and pepper everything, I am was a serious activist, but every food eating here, I have not say love. A dish to please everyone, this scene, I just see here.

“Real different” service good and don’t have anything to say, say details, and cold dishes served just fly a bug on it, the waiter immediately keen-eyed hand back the dish, said he would do it again, and we did not see the tiny insects.

▲ People watering Peony swallow nest.

Peony swallow nest, also known as Luoyang swallow nest, is based on various types of vegetables, mostly radishes and cook it the smell of bird’s nest soup. This “bird’s nest” is Wu Zetian usually taste a dish, best eat less greasy. Soup cooking light and delicious, the “bird’s nest” toughness and refreshing, say one of enjoyment.

• I love the “bird’s nest soup,” I eat not the bird’s nest, is turnip. Delicious soup I got almost the same.

I’m not eating radish flavor, I consulted with the waiter knew radish answers site Eater like me, surprised.

To make a delicious and toughness of the “bird’s nest”, carrot strips have to be dried before cooking. Dried radish is a technical, ventilation and sunlight has on the environment much.

• Iron foodie, feast of the water.

After a cold dish, soup of water and all kinds of dishes, a staple a strong debut.

Soup per person each one, the boiling broth in my front tank never more than 5 because two on each soup, the waiter would bring to a new soup, take another soup, I often won’t let her take soup that I haven’t finished, but before it is filled. Water water seats, I had come to deeply appreciate the feast.

Episode: boiling broth over water, to avoid going to the bathroom, got back on the table, a partner told me, there are two soups, I haven’t even tried to bite, has been taken away. So I learned every soup, drink two small, leisurely ask the waiter to take away, waiting for the next fresh enjoyment. This scenario reminds me of the TV to see the emperor to dine out, too, have a taste, leaving her, and finally, in the presence of food, I also do an emperor.

• No matter how delicious the soup, I can only, eat two bites, withdraw!

▲ Go to fill out “really different” façade. Many big name, such as state dinners, the Tang dynasty Chinese first feast · · · · · ·, I think worthy of the name.

• Lobby Attendant. Enter “really different,” it feels like it’s out of the ordinary.

▲ Father-in-law propaganda purpose, Luoyang water Banquet, Queen qinci.

We enjoy seats going to the water masses of stalls, rooms have 2 maids waited on, good food and service make us pleasantly, I do not know how wonderful and fancy bits of water sitting experience. However, I have been very satisfied, and Luoyang trip, is enough.

▲ “Really different” inside. Also wanted to do some people experience tongue on the ancient capital of Luoyang.

▲ Night “really different” in front of crowds, traffic and business is very, very good.

Longmen Grottoes · Cliff exhibit wonders of the Millennium

Longmen Grottoes in the dazzling cave shrines, statues, and do not really know where to start.

As the world’s cultural heritage, the Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang, has become one of the most significant source of tourist revenue. It is located in the South suburb of Luoyang Longmen mountains, there are East and West Castle, most of the spectacular caves dug at the foot.

▲ Fengxian Temple Longmen Grottoes is the largest, the most exquisite carved a set group, is today the most complete and most beautifully. Middle of the master – the Buddha Vairocana Buddha statue has become the spokesperson of the Longmen Grottoes in Luoyang, even.

Occasion of the Longmen Grottoes was founded in Emperor xiaowen of the Northern Wei capital Luoyang (493), after hundreds of years after large-scale construction, the Middle has been damaged, there have been stopped, there have been people collective, built all sorts of conditions. Maximum of Fengxian Temple is the Buddha Vairocana Buddha, Buddha in the Lotus caves of the minimum, only 2 cm.

• Looking ahead, cave shrine of countless big and small, they just packed in the mountain stretches a kilometer. Its spectacular speaks for itself.

▲ Mountain cliffs on the surface as well as the intricate carvings, some visible, some only a fuzzy body. I also visited the Yungang Grottoes in Shanxi province, due to the textures of the mountain, where the Buddha saved was more delicate than the Longmen Grottoes.

▲ Is preserved in the cave Grotto statues, rare integrity, Grotto cave and some residual color and text at the top. Can imagine the radiant was first built.

▲ Cave cave, except for a few main Buddha statue, looking, top, walls, dense is all, that seemingly small bump one after another was Buddha. So much of the amount, engraving is so fine, wonder construction of Longmen Grottoes take up to 400 years old.

Common identification number this is 1XXX cave outside hole, Bay number thousands, the great number of them.

• Omnipresent statues, Buddha mind, Buddha among the people, everywhere, it just means it was fear of belief of times.

▲ Cliff on the spectacular Buddhist shrine along the ladder, go straight up, are not finished before the eyes of Buddha.

▲ The statue in the shrine. In the history of these grottoes have suffered varying degrees of destruction, many niches are empty, or a Buddha head was cut off, not preserved. Even limited retained part of the lot also has been unable to discern the face of charm, the Yungang Grottoes in Shanxi province also has a lot of damage, but retained most of the statues are clearly distinguishable, eyes perseverance in God. It seems that weathering of the Longmen Grottoes was more serious.

▲ Retain most exquisite group of Fengxian Temple Buddha, which is part of Royal Temple Fengxian Temple, built by Empress Wu’s sponsor. Statues of plump, meets the aesthetics of Tang fat is beautiful. There are nine Buddha, Lord Buddha up to 17 metres, an air of gentle kind, these feminine feminine statue reminds me of the Shanxi Yungang stone cave Buddha to those strong masculinity, male. Two very different images.

As with the Yungang Grottoes, Longmen Grottoes in many Buddha statues are also references the Emperor face of repair, there’s a folklore this most expensive of Vairocana Buddha is referred to Wu Zetian’s appearance.

▲ Fengxian Temple statues of you, right 2, air is clearly visible, who still has a little color. Compare the 2 lie in the rough, and Vairocana Buddha is really loving wisdom, no wonder he became a spokesperson of the Longmen Grottoes.

▲ Between Dong Shan XI Shan grottoes, grottoes and, flowing gently down the river.

• When you leave the Longmen Grottoes, we sailed off from the River, ships far off picture of Fengxian Temple.

▲ Night at the Longmen Grottoes, lights turn on, very brilliant. Looks like the Buddha a big Party?

I didn’t tour caves, this picture was taken on the area’s night poster. But I think back more than 1000 years ago, the Tang dynasty, in the color of the painted sculptures and carvings has barely faded before, Longmen Grottoes is the stunning spectacle.


Caves

The caves were cut into the side of a cliff which is close to two kilometers long. At its height, during the Tang Dynasty, there were more than a thousands caves, but over time many of the caves were lost, including the earliest caves. 735 caves currently exist in Mogao the best-known ones are the 487 caves located in the southern section of the cliff which are places of pilgrimage and worship. 248 caves have also been found to the north which were living quarters, meditation chambers, and burial sites for the monks. The caves at the southern section are decorated, while those at the northern section are mostly plain.

The caves are clustered together according to their era, with new caves from a new dynasty being constructed in different part of the cliff. From the murals, sculptures, and other objects found in the caves, the dates of around five hundred caves have been determined. Following is a list of the caves by era, compiled in the 1980s (more have been identified since):

Sixteen Kingdoms (366–439) - 7 caves, the oldest dated to Northern Liang period.

Northern Wei (439–534) and Western Wei (535-556) - 10 from each phase

Northern Zhou (557–580) - 15 caves

Sui Dynasty (581–618) - 70 caves

Early Tang (618–704) - 44 caves

High Tang (705–780) - 80 caves

Middle Tang (781–847) - 44 caves (This era in Dunhuang is also known as the Tibetan period because Dunhuang was then under Tibetan occupation.)

Late Tang (848–906) - 60 caves (This and the subsequent periods until the Western Xia period are also known collectively as the Guiyijun period (歸義軍 'Return to Righteousness Army', 848–1036) when Dunhuang was ruled by the Zhang and Cao families.)



Kommentaar:

  1. Ness

    volledige mortaliteit ---- en kwaliteit

  2. Jeren

    Ek is jammer, maar na my mening word foute gemaak. Ek kan dit bewys.

  3. Tatanka-Ptecila

    Watter frase ... super, merkwaardige idee

  4. Brittain

    Op jou plek sal ek vir die hulp aan 'n moderator rig.

  5. Ervine

    And how it to paraphrase?

  6. Searlus

    Waar kan ek daaroor lees?



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