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Vermont skaf slawerny af - geskiedenis

Vermont skaf slawerny af - geskiedenis


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Op 2 Julie 1777 het Vermont die eerste staat geword wat slawerny afgeskaf het. Tussen 1777 en 1804 het alle state noord van die Delaware gestem om die slawerny geleidelik af te skaf.

CHRONOLOGIE-Wie het slawerny verbied wanneer?

(Reuters) - Brittanje vier op 25 Maart 200 jaar sedert dit 'n wet uitgevaardig het wat die trans -Atlantiese slawehandel verbied, hoewel volledige afskaffing van slawerny nie nog 'n generasie gevolg het nie.

Hier volg 'n paar belangrike datums in die trans-Atlantiese handel in slawe uit Afrika en die afskaffing daarvan.

1444 - Eerste openbare verkoop van Afrikaanse slawe in Lagos, Portugal

1482 - Portugese begin met die bou van die eerste permanente slawehandelpos in Elmina, Gold Coast, nou Ghana

1510 - Eerste slawe arriveer in die Spaanse kolonies van Suid -Amerika nadat hulle via Spanje gereis het

1518 - Eerste direkte versending van slawe van Afrika na die Amerikas

1777 - Staat Vermont, 'n onafhanklike Republiek na die Amerikaanse Revolusie, word die eerste soewereine staat om slawerny af te skaf

1780's - Trans -Atlantiese slawehandel bereik 'n hoogtepunt

1787 - The Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade gestig in Brittanje deur Granville Sharp en Thomas Clarkson

1792 - Denemarke verbied die invoer van slawe na die Wes -Indiese kolonies, hoewel die wet eers vanaf 1803 van krag geword het.

1807 - Brittanje aanvaar die afskaffing van die slawehandelwet, wat die Britse Atlantiese slawehandel verbied.

- Die Verenigde State aanvaar wetgewing wat die slawehandel verbied, van krag vanaf die begin van 1808.

1811 - Spanje skaf slawerny af, ook in sy kolonies, alhoewel Kuba die verbod verwerp en steeds slawe hanteer.

1813 - Swede verbied slawehandel

1814 - Nederland verbied slawehandel

1817 - Frankryk verbied slawehandel, maar die verbod is eers in 1826 van krag

1833 - Brittanje aanvaar die Wet op Afskaffing van Slawerny en beveel geleidelike afskaffing van slawerny in alle Britse kolonies. Plantasie -eienaars in Wes -Indië ontvang 20 miljoen pond as vergoeding

- Groot -Brittanje en Spanje onderteken 'n verdrag wat slawehandel verbied

1819 - Portugal skaf slawehandel noord van die ewenaar af

- Brittanje plaas 'n vloot eskader aan die Wes -Afrikaanse kus om die verbod op slawehandel af te dwing

1823 - Brittanje se Anti -Slavery Society word gestig. Lede sluit in William Wilberforce

1846 - Deense goewerneur verkondig emansipasie van slawe in Deens -Wes -Indië en skaf slawerny af

1848 - Frankryk skaf slawerny af

1851 - Brasilië skaf slawehandel af

1858 - Portugal skaf slawerny in sy kolonies af, alhoewel alle slawe onderworpe is aan 'n 20 -jarige vakleerlingskap

1861 - Nederland skaf slawerny in die Nederlandse Karibiese kolonies af

1862 - Die Amerikaanse president Abraham Lincoln kondig die emansipasie van slawe aan met ingang van 1 Januarie 1863 13de wysiging van die Amerikaanse grondwet volg in 1865 die verbod op slawerny

1886 - Slawerny word in Kuba afgeskaf

1888 - Brasilië skaf slawerny af

1926 - Volkebond aanvaar slawerny -konvensie om slawerny af te skaf

1948 - Die Algemene Vergadering van die Verenigde Nasies aanvaar die Universele Verklaring van Menseregte, insluitend 'n artikel wat lui: "Niemand mag in slawerny of slawerny -slawerny gehou word nie, en slawehandel is in alle vorme verbied."

Bronne: Universiteit van Durham: hier Kantoor van die Verenigde Nasies se Hoë Kommissaris vir Menseregte: hier Anti-Slavery Society: hier


Die poging om enige melding van slawerny uit die Grondwet van Vermont te verwyder

Die staat is trots op sy afskaffingsgeskiedenis. Maar sy identiteit is geskud deur onlangse rassistiese voorvalle.

V ermont se grondwet is die moeilikste in die land om te wysig. Maar in die komende jare wil staatswetgewers dit verander vir 'n hoogs ongewone doel: om ontslae te raak van die taal wat slawerny afgeskaf het.

Die poging is deel van 'n groter druk van wetgewers om Vermont se selfbeeld te versterk as 'n bastion van liberale waardes en persoonlike vryhede, wat getoets is deur onlangse rassistiese voorvalle in die staat. Advokate vir die verwydering van die klousule sê dat dit eenvoudig nie meer nodig is nie, en dat die opname daarvan in die stigtingsdokument beledigend is vir Afro -Amerikaners in Vermont. Die huidige aantal voorgestelde wysigings-die slawerny-bepaling, 'n uitgebreide maatreël vir gelyke beskerming, 'n grondwetlike waarborg vir aborsieregte en 'n waarborg van privaatheid-kan die stembrief bereik sodra die middeltermynverkiesing in 2022 plaasvind.

Alhoewel die maatreëls wat verband hou met aborsie hoog aangeskryf word, is die slawerny- en gelyke beskermingsmaatreëls die kern van die staat se identiteit. Vermont, wat ten tyde van die laaste sensus 95 persent wit was, is bekend vir sy rasliberalisme sedert hy in 1777 die eerste plek in die Westelike Halfrond geword het om slawerny te verbied. Maar die staat bly monochromaties en soms rassig. "Vermont word al lank beskuldig, veral in ander dele van die land, dat hy verdraagsaam is sonder om baie diversiteit te hê ... van slegs 'n paar bruin mense wat ooit tot die wetgewer van die staat verkies is.

Wat die slawerny-gedeelte betref, 'ons wil dit heeltemal uit', sê Tabitha Pohl-Moore, waarnemende direkteur van die NAACP-tak in Vermont en die president van die hoofstuk van Rutland-gebied, met die argument dat teenstanders van verwydering die oortuiging dat "wit mense dink dat hulle beter weet wat ons nodig het as wat ons doen. ”

Die rassegelykheidsmaatreëls funksioneer as 'n teken vir Vermonters, sê advokate dat dwaasheid 'n afsku van die staat se waardes is. Die gelyke beskerming van veral die staatsgrondwet het die afgelope somer 'n nuwe dringendheid onder wetgewers gekry, toe Kiah Morris, 'n staatsverteenwoordiger van Bennington en die enigste swart vrou in die wetgewer, bedank het na 'n stortvloed rassistiese teistering en dreigemente van wit oppergesag, veral 'n ander Bennington -inwoner. (Morris kon nie vir kommentaar bereik word nie.) Die doelwit van Morris was een van verskeie voorvalle in die onlangse verlede wat die staat se selfbeeld geskud het. 'N Jaar tevore het die burgemeester van Rutland, die derde grootste stad in die staat, herverkiesing verloor nadat sy plan om 100 Siriese en Irakse vlugtelinge in die gemeenskap te hervestig, openbare woede ontlok het. Verlede somer is 'n diverse groep kampeerders geteiken in ten minste drie voorvalle van rassistiese teistering in die oord Stowe.

"Dit is tyd om te erken dat daar groepe is wat gediskrimineer word, hetsy implisiet of eksplisiet," sê senator Virginia Lyons, hoofborg van die wysiging van gelyke beskerming. 'Ons samelewing as 'n demokrasie sal net duur solank hierdie groepe ondersteun word.'

Saam stel die wysigings komplekse vrae vir die wetgewers van die staat: nie net oor watter plek Vermont is nie, maar ook oor watter kwessies in die belangrikste regsdokument van 'n staat aangespreek moet word.

Die slawerny-bepaling is die minste prakties van die wysigings-die verwydering van die taal het hoegenaamd geen effek op die daaglikse regsgedinge in die staat nie. Tog is die kwessie die histories en ideologies mees gevulde van al die wysigings wat na die stembrief werk. Die ondersteuners van die wysiging beskou Vermont as 'n plek op die voorpunt van sosiale billikheid, waar die grondwet met die tyd verander en gister se radikalisme vandag 'n uitgemaakte saak is. Die ander faksie beskou die werk van die verlede - die afskaffingsbeweging van die staat en baanbrekende regskodes wat mans wat nie eiendom besit nie, kon stem - as die noodsaaklike bousteen van die huidige Green Mountain -staat. Vermonters in hierdie kamp glo dat die afskaffingstaal in die grondwet moet bly - dat as die geskiedenis van Vermont se radikale verlede nie in die staatswet sigbaar is nie, iets van die gees daarvan verlore kan gaan.

Toe die vroegste weergawe van die grondwet van die staat in Julie 1777 geskryf is, was Vermont 'n onafhanklike republiek wat bondig verbonde was aan die jaaroue Verenigde State. In die dokument probeer Vermont se stigters hulself as geleerd, redelik en radikaal voorstel, sê Gary Shattuck, 'n voormalige assistent in die VSA en 'n historikus wat die vorming van die staat bestudeer. Deel van die radikalisme was 'n aksie teen slawerny: Sedert die begin van die transatlantiese slawehandel het geen land die praktyk verbied nie - en Vermont het die eerste geword.

Maar die werklikheid van afskaffing was donkerder. Vroeg in Vermont is die verbod - saam met die grootste deel van die nuwe grondwet - ongelyk toegepas. En die taal is dubbelsinnig: die dokument is bedoel om slegs slawerny vir volwassenes uitdruklik te verbied om vakleerlinge en toegewyde diensbaarheid, beide relatief algemene 18de-eeuse praktyke, toe te laat. Die relevante gedeelte in die huidige dokument - in wese identies in die weergawe van 1777 - lui:

Dat alle persone ewe vry en onafhanklik gebore word en oor sekere natuurlike, inherente en onvervreembare regte beskik, waaronder die geniet en verdedig van lewe en vryheid, die verkryging, besit en beskerming van eiendom en die najaag en verkry van geluk en veiligheid, daarom is niemand gebore nie in hierdie land, of van die see af gebring moet word, moet deur die wet in besit geneem word, om enige persoon as 'n slaaf, 'n slaaf of 'n leerling te dien nadat hy tot die ouderdom van een-en-twintig jaar gekom het, tensy hy deur die persoon se eie toestemming gebind is nadat hy aangekom het tot die ouderdom, of deur die wet gebind vir die betaling van skulde, skadevergoeding, boetes, koste of dies meer.

Onder die wysiging soos eers voorgestel, wat saam met 25 staatsenatore geborg is, sou die hele gedeelte gesny word. Die huidige taal "laat slawerny toe onder sekere omstandighede, en dit is eenvoudig verkeerd," sê die Demokratiese senator Debbie Ingram, wat die maatreël voorgestel het. 'Ek dink ons ​​as bevoorregte wit mense moet die ekstra myl loop en verstaan ​​hoe dit sou wees om hierdie bepaling as die eerste sin in ons grondwet te hê. Dit is vernederend en dit is uitsluitend. En ons moet seker maak dat dit reggestel word. ” Om van die hele gedeelte ontslae te raak, is die enigste opsie, sê Pohl-Moore.

Maar die idee dat slawerny op enige manier deur die huidige taal beskou word, word deur sommige geleerdes betwis. Die voorgestelde wysiging, sê die professor van die Vermont Law School, Peter Teachout, is die produk van 'n verkeerde lees van die 18de-eeuse taal. 'Dit is absoluut duidelik, en die hooggeregshof in Vermont het destyds duidelik gemaak dat die grondwet van Vermont slawerny verbied het,' sê hy. 'Dit maak nie saak of dit volwasse slawerny of kinderslawerny was nie.'

Staats trots is ook op die spel. Vermont se vroeë afskaffing van slawerny is baie gewild in die staat. "Dit is iets waarop alle Vermonters trots is, gegewe ons leierskap oor rasse -gelykheid, toe ander plekke dit nie erken nie," sê Jim Douglas, die voormalige Republikeinse goewerneur wat sy amp in 2011 verlaat het. Die grondwet van 1777 was 'n ambisieuse en visioenêre idee volgens Rob Williams, 'n dosent aan die Universiteit van Vermont en die uitgewer van die afskeidingswebwerf Vermont Independent. Volgens hom sou die verwydering van die slawerny -afdeling een van die trotsste prestasies van die staat herstel.

Maar daar is 'n eenvoudige rede om die bestaande taal te sny, volgens Tim Ashe, die president van die staats senaat pro tempore en 'n leidende medeborg van drie van die vier voorgestelde wysigings. As hulle dit doen, sal mense van kleur beklemtoon dat hulle gelyk en gewaardeer is in die staat se samelewing - 'n boodskap "wat moet seëvier oor die bewaring van die nalatenskap van staatsleiers van 'n paar honderd jaar gelede," sê Ashe.

Tog glo beide Ashe en Joe Benning, die leier van die minderheid in die Senaat, in die moontlikheid van 'n kompromisoplossing waarin die dubbelsinnige taal verwyder word terwyl die verbod op slawerny gehandhaaf word - 'n nuwe taal wat waarskynlik na vore kom namate die maatreël in die wetgewer bespreek word . Inderdaad, Teachout en sy bondgenote kon die staats senaat oorreed om voort te gaan met 'n wysiging aan die wysiging wat die bewoording verwyder wat moontlik ingeboude diensbaarheid of onbetaalde vakleerlinge kon toelaat. Die weergawe het na die laerhuis van die wetgewer gevorder.

Maar enige oplossing wat 'n deel van die klousule ongeskonde laat, is onaanvaarbaar, sê Pohl-Moore. 'As dit gaan oor historiese bewaring, plaas dan die oorspronklike grondwet êrens in 'n museum en kyk daarna. Niemand gaan slawerny vergeet nie, behalwe die mense wat daarby baat gevind het, ”het sy vir my gesê. 'Wit nostalgie is nie my probleem nie, en dit behoort nie die las van kleurlinge te wees om hierdie ontleding en die vreemde spel met taal te hanteer nie.'

Wat ook al die uitkoms is, dit is 'n uitdaging om 'n vonnis te herskryf wat in die algemeen 242 jaar lank nie gewysig is nie, en sommige beskou die pogings van die senaat as 'n soort wetsontwerpende Beeldenstorm. 'Dit wil net voorkom asof hulle probeer om die evangelie te herskryf', sê Paul Gillies, 'n prokureur en 'n konstitusionele historikus in Montpelier. "Dit is een van die dinge waarvoor Vermont die bekendste is: die eerste regering om slawerny af te skaf."

Die poging om die grondwet van Vermont te wysig, is opvallend, ongeag die inhoud van die wysigings. Die dokument, met 8,295 woorde, is die kortste in die land (Alabama, die langste, is ongeveer 42 keer langer). Dit is een van die oudste, wesenlik onveranderd langer as enige ander. En dit is 'die moeilikste staatsgrondwet in die land om te wysig', sê Eric Davis, emeritus-professor in politieke wetenskap aan Middlebury College. Dit is deels te wyte aan 'n wet wat bepaal dat wysigings slegs elke drie tot vier jaar aangebring mag word en 'n afkoelperiode tussen twee stemme oor die wysigings in elke kamer van die wetgewer vereis. Eers nadat die proses afgehandel is, kry die kiesers 'n gewig. Die nuwe wysigings is in verskillende stadiums van hul lewensduur, hoewel die meeste na verwagting deur wetgewers goedgekeur sal word.*

Miskien as gevolg van hierdie lastige proses, is die grondwet van Vermont baie goed. Wysigers en wetgewers beoordeel die wysigings of hulle aan basiese behoeftes en strukturele bekommernisse voldoen, eerder as of hulle 'n spesifieke aangeleentheid bepaal, sê Richard Cassidy, 'n prokureur wat die staat se grondwet bestudeer. Dit het beteken dat die dokument baie meer veralgemeen is as baie van sy eweknieë, waarvan sommige honderde wysigings bevat en hulself bemoei met relatiewe banaliteite soos die regering van spesifieke munisipaliteite. Teachout het die dokument vergelyk met Dan & amp Whits, 'n algemene winkel in Norwich, 'n stad met 3 000 mense aan die rivier die Connecticut. Die leuse van die winkel: "As ons dit nie het nie, het u dit nie nodig nie!"

Die mees onlangse wysigings aan die grondwet van Vermont was nie omvattend nie, wat handel oor items soos geregtelike aftrede en borgtog. Maar hierdie siklus is anders. As een van die nuwe maatreëls deur die kiesers van die staat goedgekeur word, is dit die eerste groot maatskaplik progressiewe wysiging wat sedert die kiesers in 1924 stemreg vir vroue goedgekeur het, 'n simboliese maatreël nadat die federale grondwet in 1920 dieselfde stap geneem het.

Vir die staats senatore met wie ek gepraat het, is die vierjaarlikse kans om die hoogste dokument van die staat te wysig 'n swaartepunt - en 'n kans om vas te stel wat volgens hulle die ware waardes van die staat is. "Die begeerte in hierdie tyd en tye was om harder te kyk en dit duidelik te maak dat alle dele van die samelewing beskerm word, nie net een segment van die samelewing nie," sê Benning, die leier van die minderheid in die senaat. Senator Lyons het 'n soortgelyke gevoel uitgespreek: "Dit is die tyd om te heroorweeg wie ons is - grondwetlik."

* 'N Vorige weergawe van hierdie verhaal berig dat die maatreël vir gelyke beskerming die wetgewer van Vermont geslaag het en in 2022 op die stembrief sal verskyn. Die verhaal is ook opgedateer om te verduidelik wanneer en hoe grondwetlike wysigings in die wetgewer goedgekeur word.


Inhoud

Gedurende die klassieke oudheid het verskeie prominente samelewings in Europa en die ou Nabye Ooste slawerny vir skuld en die verwante maar duidelike praktyk van skuldgebondenheid gereguleer (waarin 'n skuldeiser verpligte arbeid by 'n skuldenaar kon onttrek, maar die skuldenaar was nie formeel verslaaf was en nie onderworpe was aan al die voorwaardes van losbandige slawerny nie, soos om voortdurend in besit te wees, op die ope mark verkoop te word of om verwant te wees).

Hervormings hieronder, soos die wette van Solon in Athene, die Lex Poetelia Papiria in Republikeinse Rome, of reëls wat in die Hebreeuse Bybel in die boek Deuteronomium uiteengesit word, het die verskaffing van slawe en skuldknegte in die algemeen gereguleer deur die slawerny van sekere bevoorregte groepe (dus het die Romeinse hervormings die Romeinse burgers beskerm, die Atheense hervormings het die Atheense burgers beskerm, en die reëls in Deuteronomium het 'n Hebreeuse vryheid na 'n vasgestelde tydperk van diensbaarheid gewaarborg), maar niemand het slawerny afgeskaf nie, en selfs watter beskerming is ingestel nie van toepassing op buitelanders of nie -burgerlike onderdane nie.

Datum Jurisdiksie Beskrywing
Vroeë sesde eeu v.C. Polis van Athene Die Atheense wetgewer Solon skaf die skuldslawerny van Atheense burgers af en bevry alle Atheense burgers wat vroeër tot slawe was. [2] [3] Die Atheense slawerny-slawerny word steeds beoefen, en die verlies aan skuldgebondenheid as 'n mededingende bron van verpligte arbeid kan selfs slawerny aangespoor het om belangriker te word in die Atheense ekonomie. [4]
326 v.C. Romeinse Republiek Lex Poetelia Papiria skaf Nexum -kontrakte af, 'n vorm om die skuldgebondenheid van arm Romeinse burgers aan ryk skuldeisers te verpand as sekuriteit vir lenings. Kasteelslawerny is nie afgeskaf nie, en Romeinse slawerny sou eeue lank voortgaan om te floreer.
9–12 nC Xin -dinastie Wang Mang, die eerste en enigste keiser van die Xin -dinastie, het die Chinese troon ingeneem en 'n reeks ingrypende hervormings ingestel, waaronder die afskaffing van slawerny en radikale grondhervorming van 9–12 nC [5] [6] Hierdie en ander hervormings is egter het 'n gewilde en elite -gevoel geword teen Wang Mang, en slawerny is heringestel nadat hy in 23 nC deur 'n woedende skare vermoor is

Datum Jurisdiksie Beskrywing
1503 Kastilië Inheemse Amerikaners het toegelaat om slegs uit eie wil na Spanje te reis. [31]
1512 Die wette van Burgos stel perke vir die behandeling van inboorlinge in die Encomienda -stelsel.
1518 Spanje Besluit van Charles V oor die invoer van Afrikaanse slawe na die Amerikas, onder monopolie van Laurent de Gouvenot, in 'n poging om slawerny van inheemse Amerikaners te ontmoedig.
1528 Karel V verbied die vervoer van inheemse Amerikaners na Europa, selfs op eie wil, in 'n poging om hul slawerny te beperk. Encomiendas word verbied om hulde in goud te versamel met die rede dat inboorlinge hul kinders verkoop om dit te kry. [32]
1530 Regte slawerny van inheemse Amerikaners is onder geen omstandighede verbied nie. Dwangarbeid onder die Encomienda duur egter voort.
1536 Die Welser -familie is onteien oor die Asiento -monopolie (toegestaan ​​in 1528) na klagtes oor hul behandeling van inheemse Amerikaanse werkers in Venezuela.
1537 Nuwe wêreld Pous Paulus III verbied slawerny van die inheemse mense van die Amerikas en enige ander bevolking om dit te ontdek, wat hul reg op vryheid en eiendom bepaal (Sublimis Deus). [33]
1542 Spanje Die New Laws verbied slawerny in Amerika en skaf die slawerny van inboorlinge af, maar vervang dit met ander stelsels dwangarbeid soos die repartimiento. Slawerny van swart Afrikane gaan voort. [20] Nuwe perke word aan die Encomienda gestel.
1549 Encomiendas word verbied om dwangarbeid te gebruik.
1550-1551 Valladolid Debat oor die aangebore regte van inheemse mense van die Amerikas.
1552 Bartolomé de las Casas, "die eerste om die onderdrukking van inheemse volke deur Europeërs in die Amerikas bloot te stel en 'n beroep op die afskaffing van slawerny daar te maak." [34]
1570 Portugal Koning Sebastian van Portugal verbied die slawerny van inheemse Amerikaners onder Portugese bewind, en laat slegs die slawerny van vyandiges toe. Hierdie wet is sterk beïnvloed deur die Genootskap van Jesus, wat sendelinge in direkte kontak met Brasiliaanse stamme gehad het.
1574 Engeland Laaste oorblywende slawe wat deur Elizabeth I. geëmansipeer is [21]
Filippyne Slawerny is deur koninklike bevel afgeskaf. [35]
1588 Litaue Die Derde Statuut van Litaue skaf slawerny af. [36]
1590 Japan Toyotomi Hideyoshi verbied slawerny behalwe as straf vir misdadigers. [37]
1595 Portugal Handel met Chinese slawe is verbied. [38]
1602 Engeland Die Clifton Star Chamber -saak het 'n presedent geskep: dit was onwettig om kinders te beïndruk as slawe om as akteurs te dien.
1609 Spanje Die Moriscos, van wie baie diensknegte is, word uit die Skiereiland verdryf, tensy hulle vrywillig slawe word (bekend as moros cortados, "sny Moors"), maar 'n groot deel vermy uitsetting of slaag daarin om terug te keer. [39]
1624 Portugal Verslawing van Chinese verbied. [40] [41]
1649 Rusland Die verkoop van Russiese slawe aan Moslems word verbied. [42]
1652 Providence Plantations Roger Williams en Samuel Gorton werk daaraan om wetgewing aan te neem om slawerny in Providence Plantations af te skaf, die eerste poging in sy soort in Noord -Amerika. Dit tree nie in werking nie. [43]
1677 Maratha Ryk Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj verbied, bevry en stop die invoer en uitvoer van alle slawe onder sy Ryk. [44]
1679 Rusland Feodor III omskep alle Russiese veldslawe in slawe. [45] [46]
1683 Spaans Chili Slawerny van Mapuche krygsgevangenes is afgeskaf. [47]
1687 Spaans Florida Vlugtende slawe uit die dertien kolonies het vryheid verleen in ruil vir bekering tot Katolisisme en vier jaar militêre diens.
1688 Pennsylvania Die Germantown Quaker Petition Against Slavery is die eerste godsdienstige petisie teen slawerny in Afrika in die Verenigde State.
Datum Jurisdiksie Beskrywing
1703 Ottomaanse Ryk Die gedwonge bekering en inleiding van Christelike kinders in die weermag, bekend as Devshirme of "Bloedbelasting", word afgeskaf.
1706 Engeland In Smith v. Browne en Cooper, Sir John Holt, Lord Chief Justice van Engeland, bepaal dat "sodra 'n neger in Engeland kom, hy vry word. 'N Mens mag 'n Villin in Engeland wees, maar nie 'n slaaf nie." [48] ​​[49]
1711-1712 Imereti Slawehandel verbied deur Mamia I van Imereti.
1712 Spanje Moros cortados verdryf. [50]
1715 Noord-Carolina
Suid Carolina
Inheemse Amerikaanse slawehandel in die Amerikaanse suidooste verminder met die uitbreek van die Yamasee -oorlog.
1723 Rusland Petrus die Grote verander alle huisslawe in huisknelle, wat slawerny in Rusland effektief onwettig maak.
1723–1730 Qing -dinastie Die Yongzheng -emansipasie wil alle slawe bevry om die outokratiese heerser te versterk deur middel van 'n soort sosiale nivellering wat 'n ongedifferensieerde klas vrye onderdane onder die troon skep. Alhoewel hierdie nuwe regulasies die oorgrote meerderheid slawe bevry het, het welvarende gesinne tot in die twintigste eeu steeds slawe -arbeid gebruik. [25]
1732 Georgië Provinsie gestig sonder Afrika -slawerny in skerp kontras met die naburige kolonie Carolina. In 1738 waarsku James Oglethorpe daarteen om die beleid te verander, wat 'die ellende van duisende in Afrika' sou veroorsaak. [51] Inheemse Amerikaanse slawerny is egter wettig in Georgië, en Afrika -slawerny word later in 1749 ingestel.
1738 Spaans Florida Fort Mosé, die eerste wettige skikking van vrye swartes in die huidige Verenigde State, word gevestig. Die woord van die skikking veroorsaak die Stono -rebellie in Carolina die volgende jaar.
1761 Portugal Die markies van Pombal verbied die invoer van slawe na die metropolitaanse Portugal. [52]
1766 Spanje Mohammed III van Marokko koop die vryheid van alle Moslem -slawe in Sevilla, Cádiz en Barcelona. [53]
1770 Circassia Die Circassians van die Abdzakh -streek het in 1770 'n groot rewolusie op die Circassian -gebied begin. Klasse soos slawe, adellikes en prinse is heeltemal afgeskaf. Die Abdzakh -rewolusie val saam met die Franse rewolusie. Terwyl baie Franse adellikes hul toevlug tot Rusland geneem het, het sommige van die Circassiese adellikes dieselfde weg geneem en hul toevlug tot Rusland geneem. [54]
1772 Engeland Somersett se saak bepaal dat geen slaaf met geweld uit Engeland verwyder kan word nie. Hierdie saak het destyds oor die algemeen besluit dat die toestand van slawerny nie onder Engelse wet in Engeland en Wallis bestaan ​​nie, en het gelei tot die emansipasie van die oorblywende tien tot veertien duisend slawe of moontlike slawe in Engeland en Wallis, wat meestal huishulpe. [55]
1773 Portugal 'N Nuwe dekreet deur die markies van Pombal, onderteken deur die koning Dom José, bevry slawe van die vierde geslag [52] en elke kind wat gebore is aan 'n slaaf nadat die besluit gepubliseer is. [56]
1774 Oos -Indiese Kompanjie Die regering van Bengale het regulasies 9 en 10 van 1774 aangeneem, wat die handel in slawe verbied sonder skriftelike akte, en die verkoop van iemand wat nog nie slawe was nie. [57]
1775 Virginia Dunmore's Proclamation belowe vryheid aan slawe wat die Amerikaanse rewolusionêres verlaat en hulle as swart lojaliste by die Britse weermag aansluit.
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Abolition Society gestig in Philadelphia, die eerste afskaffingsvereniging op die gebied wat nou die Verenigde State van Amerika is.
Verenigde State Atlantiese slawehandel is tydens die Revolusionêre Oorlog in die Verenigde Kolonies verbied of opgeskort. Dit was 'n voortsetting van die dertien kolonies se nie-invoerooreenkomste teen Brittanje as 'n poging om alle ekonomiese bande met Brittanje tydens die oorlog te verbreek. [58]
1777 Madeira Slawerny afgeskaf. [59]
Vermont Die Grondwet van die Republiek van Vermont verbied slawerny gedeeltelik, [59] om mans ouer as 21 en vroue ouer as 18 jaar te bevry ten tye van die verloop daarvan. [60] Die verbod word nie sterk toegepas nie. [61] [62]
1778 Skotland Joseph Knight voer suksesvol aan dat die Skotse wet nie die status van slawerny kan ondersteun nie. [63]
1779 Britse Amerika Die Philipsburg -proklamasie bevry alle slawe wat die Amerikaanse rebelle verlaat, ongeag hul bereidwilligheid om vir die Kroon te veg.
1780 Pennsylvania 'N Wet op die geleidelike afskaffing van slawerny geslaag en toekomstige kinders van slawe bevry. Diegene wat voor die wet gebore is, bly lewenslank slawe. Die wet word 'n model vir ander noordelike state. Laaste slawe bevry 1847. [64]
1783 Russiese Ryk Slawerny is afgeskaf in die onlangs geannekseerde Krim -khanaat. [65]
Massachusetts Hooggeregshof in Massachusetts beslis slawerny ongrondwetlik, 'n besluit gebaseer op die grondwet van 1780 in Massachusetts. Alle slawe word onmiddellik bevry. [66]
Heilige Romeinse Ryk Josef II skaf slawerny in Bukovina af. [67]
New Hampshire Geleidelike afskaffing van slawerny begin.
1784 Connecticut Geleidelike afskaffing van slawerny, vrykomende toekomstige kinders van slawe, en later alle slawe. [68]
Rhode eiland Geleidelike afskaffing van slawerny begin.
1786 Nieu -Suid -Wallis 'N Beleid om slawerny heeltemal te verbied, word deur die aangewese goewerneur Arthur Phillip aangeneem vir die binnekort gevestigde kolonie. [69]
1787 Verenigde State Die Verenigde State van Amerika het in die kongres vergader die Noordwes -ordonnansie van 1787 aangeneem en enige nuwe slawerny in die noordwestelike gebiede verbied.
Sierra Leone Gestig deur Groot -Brittanje as 'n kolonie vir geëmansipeerde slawe. [70]
Groot Brittanje Society for the Abolition of the Slave Trade gestig in Groot -Brittanje. [59]
1788 Sir William Dolben's Act wat die voorwaardes op Britse slaweskepe bepaal.
Frankryk Abolitionist Society of the Friends of the Blacks gestig in Parys.
Denemarke Beperkings aan diensbaarheid onder die Stavnsbånd -stelsel.
1789 Frankryk Die laaste seigneuriese voorregte oor boere is afgeskaf. [71]
1791 Pole-Litaue Die Grondwet van 3 Mei 1791 het elemente van politieke gelykheid tussen inwoners en adel ingevoer en die boere onder die beskerming van die regering geplaas, wat dit die ergste misbruik van diensbaarheid versag.
1791 Frankryk Emansipasie van tweede generasie slawe in die kolonies. [53]
1792 Denemarke-Noorweë Trans -Atlantiese slawehandel is na 1803 onwettig verklaar, hoewel slawerny in Deense kolonies tot 1848 voortduur. [72]
1792 Sint Helena Die invoer van slawe na die eiland Saint Helena is in 1792 verbied, maar die gefaseerde emansipasie van meer as 800 inwonende slawe het eers in 1827 plaasgevind, wat nog ses jaar was voordat die Britse parlement wetgewing aangeneem het om slawerny in die kolonies te verbied. [73]
1793 Saint-Domingue Kommissaris Leger-Felicite Sonthonax skaf slawerny in die noordelike deel van die kolonie af. Sy kollega Etienne Polverel doen dieselfde in die res van die gebied in Oktober.
Bo -Kanada Die invoer van slawe wat deur die Wet teen Slawerny verbied word.
1794 Frankryk Slawerny is in alle Franse gebiede en besittings afgeskaf. [74]
Verenigde State Die slawehandelwet verbied beide Amerikaanse skepe om aan slawehandel deel te neem en die uitvoer van slawe in buitelandse skepe. [58]
Pole-Litaue Die afkondiging van Połaniec, uitgereik tydens die Kościuszko -opstand, het uiteindelik die diensbaarheid in Pole afgeskaf en aan alle kleinboere aansienlike burgerlike vryhede verleen.
1798 Beset Malta Slawerny is op die eilande verbied nadat hulle deur die Franse magte onder leiding van Napoleon Bonaparte gevange geneem is. [75]
1799 New York Geleidelike emansipasie handeling bevry die toekomstige kinders van slawe, en alle slawe in 1827. [76]
Skotland Die Colliers (Scotland) Act 1799 beëindig die regsdienstigheid of slawerny van steenkool- en soutmynwerkers wat in 1606 gestig is. [77]

Illustrasie uit die boek: Die swart man se klaaglied, of hoe om suiker te maak deur Amelia Opie (Londen, 1826)

Datum Jurisdiksie Beskrywing
1800 Joseon Staatslawerny is verbied in 1800. Private slawerny het voortgeduur totdat dit in 1894 verbied is.
1800 Verenigde State Amerikaanse burgers word verbied om te belê en te werk in die internasionale slawehandel in 'n addisionele slawehandelwet.
1802 Frankryk Napoleon stel slawerny weer bekend in suikerrietkolonies. [78]
Ohio Staatsgrondwet skaf slawerny af.
1803 Denemarke-Noorweë Afskaffing van Deense deelname aan die transatlantiese slawehandel tree op 1 Januarie in werking.
1804 New Jersey Slawerny afgeskaf. [79]
Haïti Haïti verklaar onafhanklikheid en skaf slawerny af. [59]
1804–1813 Serwië Plaaslike slawe het geëmansipeer.
1805 Verenigde Koninkryk 'N Wetsontwerp op afskaffing word in die Laerhuis aanvaar, maar word in die House of Lords verwerp.
1806 Verenigde State In 'n boodskap aan die kongres, vra Thomas Jefferson dat die internasionale slawehandel gekriminaliseer moet word en die Kongres gevra word om 'die burgers van die Verenigde State te onttrek van alle verdere deelname aan die skendings van menseregte, wat die sedelikheid, die reputasie en die beste van ons Die land was al lank gretig om te beskuldig. ”
1807 Internasionale slawehandel het 'n misdryf begaan in Wet verbod op die invoer van slawe. Hierdie wet tree op 1 Januarie 1808 in werking, die vroegste datum wat kragtens die Grondwet toegelaat word. [80]
Verenigde Koninkryk Afskaffing van die Slave Trade Act skaf slawehandel in die hele Britse Ryk af. Kapteins beboet £ 120 per vervoerde slaaf. Patrollies is na die Afrikaanse kus gestuur om slawevaartuie in hegtenis te neem. Die Wes-Afrika-eskader (Royal Navy) is gestig om slawehandel teen 1865 te onderdruk, byna 150 000 mense wat bevry is deur bedrywighede teen slawerny. [81]
Warskou Grondwet skaf diensbaarheid aan. [82]
Pruise Die hervormings van Stein-Hardenberg skaf die diensbaarheid af. [82]
Michigan -gebied Regter Augustus Woodward ontken die terugkeer van twee slawe wat deur 'n man in Windsor, Bo -Kanada, besit word. Woodward verklaar dat 'n man "wat hierdie gebied binnekom, 'n vryman is deur die land. [83]
1808 Verenigde State Invoer en uitvoer van slawe het 'n misdaad gemaak. [84]
1810 Nuwe Spanje Onafhanklikheidsleier Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla het die afskaffing van slawerny aangekondig drie maande na die begin van die onafhanklikheid van Mexiko uit Spanje.
1811 Verenigde Koninkryk Slawehandel het 'n misdryf strafbaar gemaak deur vervoer vir sowel Britse onderdane as buitelanders.
Spanje Die Cortes van Cádiz skaf die laaste oorblywende seigneuriale regte af. [53]
Britse Oos -Indiese Kompanjie Die Kompanjie het regulasies 10 van 1811 uitgevaardig, wat die vervoer van slawe na die gebied van die onderneming verbied, wat die 1774 -beperkings bygevoeg het. [57]
Chili Die Eerste Nasionale Kongres keur 'n voorstel van Manuel de Salas goed wat die vryheid van baarmoeder verklaar, wat die kinders bevry van slawe wat in die Chileense gebied gebore is, ongeag die toestand van hul ouers. Die slawehandel is verbied en die slawe wat langer as ses maande in die Chileense gebied bly, word outomaties as bevrydes verklaar.
1812 Spanje Die Cortes van Cádiz aanvaar die Spaanse Grondwet van 1812, wat burgerskap en gelyke regte gee aan alle inwoners in Spanje en haar gebiede, met uitsondering van slawe. During deliberations, Deputies José Miguel Guridi y Alcocer and Agustín Argüelles unsuccessfully argue for the abolition of slavery. [53]
1813 New Spain Independence leader José María Morelos y Pavón declares slavery abolished in Mexico in the documents Sentimientos de la Nación.
United Provinces Law of Wombs passed by the Assembly of Year XIII. Slaves born after 31 January 1813 will be granted freedom when they are married, or on their 16th birthday for women and 20th for men, and upon their manumission will be given land and tools to work it. [85]
1814 United Provinces After the occupation of Montevideo, all slaves born in modern Uruguayan territory are declared free.
Nederland Slave trade abolished.
1815 Frankryk Napoleon abolishes the slave trade.
Portugal Slave trade banned north of the Equator in return for a £750,000 payment by Britain. [86]
Florida British withdrawing after the War of 1812 leave a fully armed fort in the hands of maroons, escaped slaves and their descendants, and their Seminole allies. Becomes known as Negro Fort.
Verenigde Koninkryk
Portugal
Sweden-Norway
Frankryk
Oostenryk
Rusland
Spanje
Pruise
The Congress of Vienna declares its opposition to slavery. [87]
1816 Estland Serfdom abolished.
Florida Negro Fort destroyed in the Battle of Negro Fort by U.S. forces under the command of General Andrew Jackson.
Algerië Algiers bombarded by the British and Dutch navies in an attempt to end North African piracy and slave raiding in the Mediterranean. 3,000 slaves freed.
1817 Courland Serfdom abolished.
Spanje Ferdinand VII signs a cedula banning the importation of slaves in Spanish possessions beginning in 1820, [53] in return for a £400,000 payment from Britain. [86] However, some slaves are still smuggled in after this date. Both slave ownership and internal commerce in slaves remained legal.
Venezuela Simon Bolivar calls for the abolition of slavery. [53]
New York 4 July 1827 set as date to free all ex-slaves from indenture. [88]
United Provinces Constitution supports the abolition of slavery, but does not ban it. [53]
1818 Verenigde Koninkryk
Spanje
Bilateral treaty abolishing the slave trade. [89]
Verenigde Koninkryk
Portugal
Bilateral treaty abolishing the slave trade. [89]
Frankryk Slave trade banned.
Verenigde Koninkryk
Nederland
Bilateral treaty taking additional measures to enforce the 1814 ban on slave trading. [89]
1819 Livonia Serfdom abolished.
Upper Canada Attorney-General John Robinson declares all black residents free.
Hawaii The ancient Hawaiian kapu system is abolished during the ʻAi Noa, and with it the distinction between the kauwā slave class and the makaʻāinana (commoners). [90]
1820 Verenigde State The Compromise of 1820 bans slavery north of the 36º 30' line the Act to Protect the Commerce of the United States and Punish the Crime of Piracy is amended to consider the maritime slave trade as piracy, making it punishable with death.
Indiana The supreme court orders almost all slaves in the state to be freed in Polly v. Lasselle.
Spanje The 1817 abolition of the slave trade takes effect. [91]
1821 Mexiko The Plan of Iguala frees the slaves born in Mexico. [53]
Verenigde State
Spanje
In accordance with Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, Florida becomes a territory of the United States. A main reason was Spain's inability or unwillingness to capture and return escaped slaves.
Peru Abolition of slave trade and implementation of a plan to gradually end slavery. [53]
Gran Colombia Emancipation for sons and daughters born to slave mothers, program for compensated emancipation set. [92]
1822 Haiti Jean Pierre Boyer annexes Spanish Haiti and abolishes slavery there.
Liberië Founded by the American Colonization Society as a colony for emancipated slaves.
Muscat and Oman
Verenigde Koninkryk
First bilateral treaty limiting the slave trade in Zanzibar.
1823 Chili Slavery abolished. [59]
Verenigde Koninkryk The Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery Throughout the British Dominions (Anti-Slavery Society) is founded.
Griekeland Prohibition of slavery is enshrined in the Greek Constitution of 1823, during the Greek War of Independence. [93]
1824 Mexiko The new constitution effectively abolishes slavery.
Sentraal Amerika Slavery abolished.
1825 Uruguay Importation of slaves banned.
Haiti France, with warships at the ready, demanded Haiti compensate France for its loss of slaves and its slave colony
1827 Verenigde Koninkryk
Sweden-Norway
Bilateral treaty abolishing the slave trade. [89]
New York Last vestiges of slavery abolished. Children born between 1799 and 1827 are indentured until age 25 (females) or age 28 (males). [94]
Saint Helena Phased emancipation of over 800 resident slaves, some six years before the British parliament passed legislation to ban slavery in all colonies. [73]
1829 Mexiko Last slaves freed just as the first president of partial African ancestry (Vicente Guerrero) is elected. [59]

An anti-slavery map with an unusual perspective centered on West Africa, which is in the light, and contrasting the U. S. and Europe in the dark. By Julius Rubens Ames, 1847.

Datum Jurisdiksie Beskrywing
1830 Coahuila en Tejas Mexican President Anastasio Bustamante attempts to implement the abolition of slavery. To circumvent the law, Anglo-Texans declare their slaves "indentured servants for life". [95]
1830 Uruguay Slavery abolished.
Ottomaanse Ryk Mahmud II issues a firman freeing all white slaves.
1831 Bolivia Slavery abolished. [59]
Brasilië Law of 7 November 1831, abolishing the maritime slave trade, banning any importation of slaves, and granting freedom to slaves illegally imported into Brazil. The law was seldom enforced prior to 1850, when Brazil, under British pressure, adopted additional legislation to criminalize the importation of slaves.
1832 Griekeland Slavery abolished with independence.
1832 Coahuila en Tejas Anahuac Disturbances: Juan Davis Bradburn, American-born Mexican officer at Anahuac,Texas, confronts slave-owning American settlers, enforcing Mexican abolition of slavery and refusing to hand over two escaped slaves.
1834 Verenigde Koninkryk The Slavery Abolition Act 1833 comes into force, abolishing slavery throughout most of the British Empire but on a gradual basis over the next six years. [96] Legally frees 700,000 in the West Indies, 20,000 in Mauritius, and 40,000 in South Africa. The exceptions are the territories controlled by the East India Company and Ceylon. [97]
Frankryk French Society for the Abolition of Slavery founded in Paris. [98]
1835 Serbia Freedom granted to all slaves in the moment they step on Serb soil. [99]
Verenigde Koninkryk
Frankryk
Bilateral treaties abolishing the slave trade. [89]
Verenigde Koninkryk
Denemarke
Peru A decree of Felipe Santiago Salaverry re-legalizes the importation of slaves from other Latin American countries. The line "no slave shall enter Peru without becoming free" is taken out of the Constitution in 1839. [100]
1836 Portugal Prime Minister Sá da Bandeira bans the transatlantic slave trade and the importation and exportation of slaves to or from the Portuguese colonies south of the equator.
Texas Slavery made legal again with independence.
1837 Spanje Slavery abolished outside of the colonies. [53]
1838 Verenigde Koninkryk All slaves in the colonies become free after a period of forced apprenticeship following the Slavery Abolition Act 1833. Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery Throughout the British Dominions (now London Anti-Slavery Society) winds up.
1839 Verenigde Koninkryk The British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society (after several changes, now known as Anti-Slavery International) is founded.
East India Company The Indian indenture system is abolished in territories controlled by the Company, but this is reversed in 1842.
Katolieke kerk Pope Gregory XVI's In supremo apostolatus resoundingly condemns slavery and the slave trade.
1840 Verenigde Koninkryk
Venezuela
Bilateral treaty abolishing the slave trade.
Verenigde Koninkryk First World Anti-Slavery Convention meets in London.
Nieu-Seeland Taking slaves banned by Treaty of Waitangi. [101]
1841 Verenigde Koninkryk
Frankryk
Rusland
Pruise
Oostenryk
Quintuple Treaty agreeing to suppress the slave trade. [59]
Verenigde State United States v. The Amistad finds that the slaves of La Amistad were illegally enslaved and were legally allowed, as free men, to fight their captors by any means necessary.
1842 Verenigde Koninkryk
Portugal
Bilateral treaty extending the enforcement of the slave trade ban to Portuguese ships south of the Equator.
Paraguay Law for the gradual abolition of slavery passed. [53]
1843 East India Company The Indian Slavery Act, 1843, Act V abolishes slavery in territories controlled by the Company.
Verenigde Koninkryk
Uruguay
Bilateral treaties abolishing the slave trade. [89]
Verenigde Koninkryk
Mexiko
Verenigde Koninkryk
Chili
Verenigde Koninkryk
Bolivia
1844 Moldawië Mihail Sturdza abolishes slavery in Moldavia.
1845 Verenigde Koninkryk 36 Royal Navy ships assigned to the Anti-Slavery Squadron, making it one of the largest fleets in the world.
Illinois In Jarrot v. Jarrot, the Illinois Supreme Court frees the last indentured ex-slaves in the state who were born after the Northwest Ordinance. [102]
1846 Tunisië Slavery abolished under Ahmad I ibn Mustafa bey rule. [103]
1847 Ottomaanse Ryk Slave trade from Africa abolished. [104]
Saint Barthélemy Last slaves freed. [105]
Pennsylvania The last indentured ex-slaves, born before 1780 (fewer than 100 in the 1840 census [106] ) are freed.
Danish West Indies Royal edict ruling the freedom of children born from female slaves and the total abolition of slavery after 12 years. Dissatisfaction causes a slave rebellion in Saint Croix the next year.
1848 Oostenryk Serfdom abolished. [107] [108] [109]
Frankryk Slavery abolished in the colonies. Gabon is founded as a settlement for emancipated slaves.
Danish West Indies Governor Peter von Scholten declares the immediate and total emancipation of all slaves in an attempt to end the slave revolt. For this he is recalled and tried for treason, but the charges are later dropped. [59] [105] [110]
Denemarke Last remains of the Stavnsbånd effectively abolished.
Verenigde Koninkryk
Muscat and Oman
Bilateral treaties abolishing the slave trade. [89]
1849 Verenigde Koninkryk
Trucial States
Sierra Leone The Royal Navy destroys the slave factory of Lomboko.

Medical examination photo of Gordon showing his scourged back, widely distributed by Abolitionists to expose the brutality of slavery


Black Then Trivia: Which State Abolished Slavery First and in What Year?

However, we prioritize our role as historians when it comes to teaching the hallmarks of black people’s contributions to this nation’s history. Hoekom? Because many of the historical facts pertaining to black America’s history are either undertaught, overlooked, or completely forgotten. Read below to find out which U.S. state abolished slavery BEFORE 1865.

The Attempt to Legislate State-Sponsored Freedom Before 1865

On July 2, 1777, Vermont became the first colony to abolish slavery when it ratified its first constitution and became a sovereign country, a status it maintained until its admittance to the union in 1791 as the 14th state in the United States. Read the selection from Chapter I of Vermont’s 1777 constitution which abolishes slavery below:

no male person, born in this country, or brought from over sea, ought to be holden by law, to serve any person, as a servant, slave or apprentice, after he arrives to the age of twenty-one Years, nor female, in like manner, after she arrives to the age of eighteen years, unless they are bound by their own consent, after they arrive to such age, or bound by law, for the payment of debts, damages, fines, costs, or the like.

Ten spyte van die de jure abolition of slavery for men over the age of 21 and women over the age of 18, the claim that Vermont completely abolished slavery in 1777 has been subject to dispute.

Harvey Amani Whitfield, author of Die probleem van slawerny in vroeë Vermont, 1777-1810, writes that slavery in Vermont was gradually phased out over a period of multiple decades.

Additionally, the National Museum of African American History and Culture (NMAAHC) staff write in “Vermont 1777: Early Steps Against Slavery” that even though “Vermont, Rhode Island, and Connecticut abolitionists achieved laudable goals, each state created legal strictures making it difficult for ‘free’ blacks to find work, own property or even remain in the state” and that Vermont’s 1777 constitution’s “wording was vague enough to let Vermont’s already-established slavery practices continue.”

Even when slavery was finally outlawed in the Northern states, their economies were fully intertwined with the institution of slavery. Every occupation and institution from barrel makers to bankers to insurance companies to the textile industry and many more were connected to slavery.

The authors of Complicity: How the North Promoted, Prolonged, and Profited from Slavery describe how New York City mayor Fernando Wood pushed for his city’s secession from the Union during the Civil War because “the lifeblood of New York City’s economy was cotton, the product most closely identified with the South and its defining system of labor: the slavery of millions of people of African descent.”

Read more about how northern states profited from slave labor even after they had abolished slavery in Complicity.


Lionsgate’s “Antebellum,” a psychological horror film about a Black woman forced into modern day chattel slavery, ends with its heroine, Veronica Eden (played by Janelle Monáe), riding triumphantly out of the Civil War reenactment park where she’d been held against her will.

The Antebellum South (also known as the antebellum era or plantation era) was a period in the history of the Southern United States from the late 18th century until the start of the American Civil War in 1861.


Vermont Abolishes Slavery - History

The newly formed state, which broke away from New York, abolished slavery outright in its constitution, dated July 8, 1777.

The relevant section is Chapter I, subtitled "A DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF THE INHABITANTS OF THE STATE OF VERMONT"

After declaring its independence, Vermont existed as a free republic known as the Commonwealth of Vermont. It was admitted to the union in 1791, with a state constitution that also contained the slavery ban. The 1777 constitution entitles Vermont to claim to be the first U.S. state to have abolished slavery.

Historian Joanne Pope Melish finds that "the language of the act was sufficiently vague that slaveholding may have persisted without sanction in a few cases for several years."[1] She cites the age limit in the clause banning involuntary servitude and points out the possibility of binding out black children of parents who had been slaves before 1777. But more likely, as Melish states, this was meant to continue the common New England policy of binding out indigent children, white or black, to prevent them being public charges.

The Vermont slave story has another footnote, however. The official report of the U.S. Census in 1870 assigned 16 slaves to Vermont in 1790, all in Bennington County. The chief clerk of the Census Bureau at the time, George D. Harrington, happened to be from Vermont, and he "discovered the mistake" and changed the status of the 16 to "Free Other." A modern historian has turned up an issue of the "Vermont Gazette" of Sept. 26, 1791, which reported the return for Bennington County, with 21 black males and 15 black females, and the marshal's assistant's boast, "To the honor of humanity, NO SLAVES." On the one hand, this seems to verify that the 1870 report was an error on the other hand it raises the suspicion that the state pride and Free Soil enthusiasm of the census taker and Chief Clerk Harrington may have obscured a lingering slavery in Vermont.

From a speech on emancipation, by Sen. J.R. Doolittle of Wisconsin, March 19, 1862.[2]

I can give you a case directly in point. A very distinguished gentleman from Vermont was first elected to Congress, I believe, about 1843. One of the well-to-do farmers in his neighborhood called upon him, the evening before he was to leave for Washington, to pay his respects. He found him in his office, and told him that he came for that purpose, and to bid him good bye.

"And now, judge," said he, "when you get to Washington, I want to have you take hold of this negro business, and dispose of it in some way or other have slavery abolished, and be done with it."

"Well," said the judge, "as the people who own these slaves, or claim to own them, have paid their money for them, and hold them as property under their State laws, would it not be just, if we abolish slavery, that some provision should be made to make them compensation?"

He hesitated, thought earnestly for a while, and, in a serious tone, replied: "Yes, I think that would be just, and I will stand my share of the taxes." Although a very close and economical man, he was willing to bear his portion of the taxes.

"But," said the judge, "there is one other question when the negroes are emancipated, what shall be done with them? They are a poor people they will have nothing there must be some place for them to live. Do you think it would be any more than fair that we should take our share of them?"

"Well, what would be our share in the town of Woodstock?" he inquired.

The judge replied: "There are about two thousand five hundred people in Woodstock and if you take the census and make the computation, you will find that there would be about one for every five white persons so that here in Woodstock our share would be about five hundred."

"What!" said he, "five hundred negroes in Woodstock! Judge, I called to pay my respects I bid you good evening" and he started for the door, and mounted his horse. As he was about to leave, he turned round and said: "Judge, I guess you need not do anything more about that negro business on my account." [Lag.]

Mr. President, perhaps I am not going too far when I say that honorable gentleman sits before me now.

Mr. [Jacob] COLLAMER [R-Vt.]. As the gentleman has called me out, I may be allowed to say that the inhabitants of the town were about three thousand, and the proportion was about one to six.


Underground Railroad Project: Anti-Slavery

The Vermont Anti-Slavery Society was formed in 1834 just one year after the formation of the American Anti-Slavery Society. One hundred delegates from 30 towns throughout Vermont came to the first meeting. The Chairman of the Executive Committee for the Vermont Anti-Slavery Society was Rowland Robinson. The purpose of the organization was to abolish slavery in the United States, and improve the mental, moral, and political condition of the &ldquocolored population.&rdquo

The Anti-Slavery Society did not wish to interfere with slavery or encourage slaves to revolt. Rather, the Society tried to accomplish its goals in a moral way. They wished to &ldquoexpose the guilt and danger of holding men as property&rdquo by publishing pamphlets, newspaper articles, and songs as well as lecturing in churches and at public meetings. This song, "The Slave's Lamentation," was written by Fairbank Bush of Norwich, Vermont. It was published as a broadside and circulated throughout the state.

In 1835, the society funded one agent who circulated anti-slavery material, lectured, and sold subscriptions. Members frequently wrote letters to Vermont newspapers such as The State Journal, The Middlebury Free Press, The North Star, The Voice of Freedom, and The Green Mountain Freeman. The Society also had depositories in Montpelier, Brandon, Vergennes, and Middlebury where people could read and purchase abolitionist newspapers, pamphlets, and books.

The Spread of the Anti-Slavery Movement vs. Prejudice in Vermont

By 1837 there were 89 local anti-slavery societies in Vermont with over 5,000 members. Bennington&rsquos anti-slavery society was founded in 1837 with 140 members. The Lincoln-Starksboro society had 485 members--among these members were many Quakers. One of the most famous Quaker abolitionists was Lucretia Mott. Lucretia Mott was born in Nantucket, Massachusetts, and spoke throughout the United States and England --her most well-known speech is "I Am No Advocate of Passivity" given in 1860 to the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society.

African Americans also belonged to the anti-slavery societies. At the annual meeting of the Chittenden County Anti-Slavery Society in 1840 a Mr. Miller spoke to the &ldquocoloured persons present&rdquo encouraging them to live down the &ldquoprejudice existing in the community against them.&rdquo

While the Vermont Legislature routinely passed resolutions against slavery and while there were many local anti-slavery societies, that did not mean that Vermont was free from prejudice against blacks. Frederick Douglass tells of his African-American friend Daniel O'Connell's experiences while on a lecture tour in Vermont:

Once when O'Connell was "traveling to Vermont, and having arrived at a stage[coach], they took in five new passengers. It being dark at the time, they did not know the colour of his [O'Connell's] skin, and he was treated with all manner of respect. In fact he could not help thinking at the time that he would be a great man if perpetual darkness would only take the place of day. Scarcely however had the light gilded the green mountains of Vermont than he saw one of the chaps in the coach take a sly peep at him, and whisper to another "Egad after all 'tis a nigger." He had black looks for the remainder of the way, and disrespect." (Frederick Douglass at an anti-slavery meeting at City Court House, Cork, Ireland, on October 14, 1845, as reported in "Interesting Narrative of Fugitive Slave," Southern Reporter and Cork Commercial Courier, October 16, 1845.)

Objections to the Anti-Slavery Movement

Like the Vermont Colonization Society, there were people who objected to the Vermont Anti-Slavery Society. Some people did not agree with the anti-slavery societies because they felt that:

  • Slaves were too ignorant to be free
  • Abolitionists were infringing on the rights of slave owners
  • The anti-slavery societies were endangering the Union.
  • These objections to the Vermont Anti-Slavery Society were sometimes violent. In 1835 abolitionist Samuel J. May made a lecture tour through the state and was mobbed five times. May was an agent of the Massachusetts Anti-Slavery Society and the first Unitarian minister to propose, from the pulpit, immediate emancipation.

The most famous riot took place at Montpelier where Mr. May had been invited to address the Society. Many of the members of the legislature then in session were abolitionists, and May was offered the use of Representatives Hall for his first meeting. In spite of a few rotten eggs and stones appearing on the capitol grounds as a warning to him, he gave his speech and accepted a second invitation for the next evening from the pulpit of the First Presbyterian Church.

In the morning, placards appeared about the town advising "the people generally and ladies in particular not to attend the anti-slavery meeting, as. as the person who is advertised to speak will be prevented by violence if necessary." In the afternoon May received a letter, requesting him to leave town, "without any further attempt to hold forth the absurd doctrine of antislaver." At the appointed hour he mounted the pulpit and started to speak.

Chaos began at once May got in some remarks on free speech. When May attempted to speak again, a rush was made for the pulpit to the cry of "throw him over, choke him!" Rioters included several prominent local businessmen who were involved in the Colonization Society.

Frederick Douglass toured Vermont and tells of a speaking tour he made here in 1843:

"Those who only know the State of Vermont as it is today can hardly understand, and must wonder that there was forty years ago a need for anti-slavery effort within its borders. The several towns [we] visited showed that Vermont was surprisingly under the influence of the slave power. Her proud boast that within her borders no slave had ever been delivered up to his master, did not hinder her hatred to anti-slavery." In Middlebury, for example, "the opposition to our anti-slavery convention was intensely bitter and violent. Few people attended our meeting, and apparently little was accomplished. In Ferrisburgh the case was different and more favorable. The way had been prepared for us by such stalwart anti-slavery workers as Orson S. Murray, Charles C. Burleigh, Rowland T. Robinson, and others."

The Meanings of Emancipation

Members of the anti-slavery societies also often disagreed with each other. While some members believed in immediate emancipation (that slaves should all be set free immediately), others believed in gradual emancipation (that slaves should be set free more gradually). The &ldquoimmediate emancipationists&rdquo were much more radical than the &ldquogradual emancipationists.&rdquo The Vermont Anti-Slavery Society took the stand that immediate emancipation was the only "effectual remedy for the evil of slavery."


Vermont Abolishes Slavery - History

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Slavery Didn't End On Juneteenth. Here's What You Should Know About This Important Day

It goes by many names. Whether you call it Emancipation Day, Freedom Day or the country's second Independence Day, Juneteenth is one of the most important anniversaries in our nation's history.

On June 19, 1865, Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger, who had fought for the Union, led a force of soldiers to Galveston, Texas, to deliver a very important message: the war was finally over, the Union had won, and it now had the manpower to enforce the end of slavery. The announcement came two months after the effective conclusion of the Civil War, and even longer since Abraham Lincoln had first signed the Emancipation Proclamation, but many enslaved black people in Texas still weren't free, even after that day.

That was 156 years ago. Here are the basics of Juneteenth that everyone should know.

What Juneteenth represents

First things first: Juneteenth gets its name from combining "June" and "nineteenth," the day that Gen. Granger arrived in Galveston, Texas, bearing a message of freedom for the slaves there. Upon his arrival, he read out General Order Number 3, informing the residents that slavery would no longer be tolerated all slaves were now free and would henceforth be treated as hired workers if they chose to remain on the plantations, according to the Juneteenth website.

"The people of Texas are informed that in accordance with a Proclamation from the Executive of the United States, all slaves are free. This involves an absolute equality of rights and rights of property between former masters and slaves, and the connection heretofore existing between them becomes that between employer and hired laborer," the order reads, in part.

But while former slaves had the option of staying on their plantations as workers, it's perhaps unsurprising that many did not and instead left in search of new beginnings or to find family members who had been sold away.

"It immediately changed the game for 250,000 people," Shane Bolles Walsh, a lecturer with the University of Maryland's African American Studies Department, told NPR.

Enslaved black people, now free, had ample cause to celebrate. As Felix Haywood, a former slave, recalled: "Everybody went wild. We all felt like heroes . just like that, we were free."

Slavery did not end on Juneteenth

When Gen. Granger arrived in Galveston, there still existed around 250,000 slaves and they were not all freed immediately, or even soon. It was not uncommon for slave owners, unwilling to give up free labor, to refuse to release their slaves until forced to, in person, by a representative of the government, historian Henry Louis Gates Jr. wrote in his explainer. Some would wait until one final harvest was complete, and some would just outright refuse to submit. It was a perilous time for black people, and some former slaves who were freed or attempted to get free were attacked and killed.

For Confederate states like Texas, even before Juneteenth, there existed a "desire to hold on to that system as long as they could," Walsh explained to NPR.

Before the reading of General Order Number 3, many slave owners in Confederate states simply chose not to tell their slaves about the Emancipation Proclamation and did not honor it. They got away with it because, before winning the war, Union soldiers were largely unable to enforce the Emancipation Proclamation in Southern states. Still, even though slavery in America would not truly come to an end until the ratification of the 13th Amendment, the Emancipation Proclamation still played a pivotal role in that process, historian Lonnie Bunch told NPR in 2013.

"What the Emancipation Proclamation does that's so important is it begins a creeping process of emancipation where the federal government is now finally taking firm stands to say slavery is wrong and it must end," Bunch said.

People have celebrated Juneteenth any way they can

After they were freed, some former slaves and their descendants would travel to Galveston annually in honor of Juneteenth. That tradition soon spread to other states, but it wasn't uncommon for white people to bar black people from celebrating in public spaces, forcing black people to get creative. In one such case, community leaders in Houston – all of whom were former slaves – saved $1,000 to purchase land in 1867 that would be devoted specifically to Juneteenth celebrations, according to the Houston Parks and Recreation Department. That land became Emancipation Park, a name that it still bears.

"'If you want to commemorate something, you literally have to buy land to commemorate it on' is, I think, just a really potent example of the long-lasting reality of white supremacy," Walsh said.

Nevertheless, black Americans found a way to continue to celebrate and lift each other up. Early on, Juneteenth celebrations often involved helping newly freed black folks learn about their voting rights, according to the Texas State Historical Association. Rodeos and horseback riding were also common. Now, Juneteenth celebrations commonly involve cookouts, parades, church services, musical performances and other public events, Walsh explained.

It's a day to "commemorate the hardships endured by ancestors," Walsh said. He added, "It really exemplifies the survival instinct, the ways that we as a community really make something out of nothing. . It's about empowerment and hopefulness."

And there's reason to be hopeful. After literal decades of activists campaigning for change, Congress has approved Juneteenth as a federal holiday.


Kyk die video: ACA. Skaf Rapist Bride. Muslim Rapist Gang Tricks White Eve. (Junie 2022).


Kommentaar:

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