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Fokker D.V

Fokker D.V


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Fokker D.V

Die Fokker DV was die Duitse weermagbenaming vir die Fokker M.22 -tweedekker, bestel as 'n opleidingsvliegtuig in Oktober 1916. Dit was die laaste in 'n reeks naby verwante en oor die algemeen onbevredigende Fokker -tweedekkers wat sedert die aanvaarding van die Fokker DI in Junie vervaardig is 1916.

In Oktober 1916 ontvang Fokker 'n bestelling vir 200 D.V's, gevolg deur bestellings vir nog 50 in Februarie 1917 en dan 'n laaste 50 in April. Hierdie vliegtuie is tussen Desember 1916 en Julie 1917 deur die Duitse weermag aanvaar. Die twee laaste bevele kan dus gesien word as 'n stemming van vertroue in die tipe, ten minste as 'n afrigter, wat aankom nadat die opleidingseenhede beduidende ervaring gehad het met die gebruik van die tipe.

Teen die einde van 1916 was die Duitse leër deeglik bewus van die kwaliteitskontrole -probleme wat met enige Fokker -vliegtuig gepaard gegaan het, en daarom is een produksievliegtuig lukraak gekies om streng toetse te ondergaan. Die vlerke en roer het voorspelbaar beide hierdie toetse gedruip en moes versterk word, maar daarna het die tipe bevredigend gevaar. In vergelyking met die gevegsvliegtuie van 1917 was dit onder krag, en die roterende enjin het beteken dat dit nie op dieselfde manier as die vliegtuig van 1917 presteer het nie. diens betree. Teen hierdie tyd was vliegtuie met roterende motors skaars, net soos vlieëniers met ervaring om dit te vlieg, en 'n aantal van die oorlewende D.V's is na voorste eenhede gestuur om as 'n omskakelingsafrigter te gebruik.

Span: 28ft 8in
Lengte: 19ft 10in
Enjin: 100 pk Oberursal UR.I
Maksimum spoed: 106 mph
Tyd tot 3,300 voet: 3 minute
Tyd tot 13.000 voet: 24 minute
Bewapening: Een LMG 08/15 masjiengeweer gesinchroniseer (indien aangebring)

Boeke oor die Eerste Wêreldoorlog | Onderwerpindeks: Eerste Wêreldoorlog


Fokker D.V - Geskiedenis

    Die D.V/Va het met Duitse eenhede in Italië gevlieg en in Palestina opereer. Masjiene wat deur die Ostdeutsche Albatros Werke was aangewys Alb. D.V of D.Va (OAW).

    Toe die Albatros -tipes na die oorlog herontwerp is (om die voorwaardes van die wapenstilstand te omseil), het die DV/Va die titel L.24 gekry.

Spesifikasies:
Albatros D.V
Afmetings:
Vleuel span: 29 ft 8 in (9,04 m)
Lengte: 24 ft 1 in (7,33 m)
Hoogte: 8 voet 10 in (2,70 m)
Gewigte:
Leeg: 1,57 pond (687 kg)
Laai gewig: 2,066 lb (937 kg)
Optrede:
Maksimum spoed: 187 km/h
Klimkoers: 827 voet/min (229 m/min)
Diensplafon: 3.000 m
Uithouvermoë: 2 ure
Kragsentrale:
Een 180 pk (135 kW) Mercedes D.IIIa 6-silinder watergekoelde inlyn-enjin.
Bewapening:
Twee 7,92 mm (.312 in) LMG 15/08 masjiengewere.

© Die aanlyn-museum vir lugvaartgeskiedenis. Alle regte voorbehou.
Geskep op 13 November 2009. Opgedateer 21 Mei 2015.


Herskep geometrie van 'n vergete WWI -vegter

Hierdie winter was ek besig met my daaglikse sake en het ek 'n blaaskans geneem van die SBD -model. In Februarie en Maart het ek egter 'n paar Sondae gehelp met 'n ander projek: die Fokker D.V -tweedekker, wat in 1917 gebruik is as 'n 'gevorderde afrigter' deur die Duitse lugkorps:

Figuur 96-1 Fokker D.V

Ek is deur C. West gevra om aan hierdie projek deel te neem. Hy het al die navorsing gedoen en al die materiaal verskaf: bloudrukke en foto's. My deel was om die meetkunde van hierdie vliegtuig te herskep, veral die rompraamwerk van staalbuise. Al wat ons gehad het, was 'n dosyn verskillende argieffoto's, 'n swak algemene tekening en die afmetings van die landingsgestel:

Figuur 96-2 Alle oorblywende D.V bloudrukke

In hierdie geval moes ek, soos ek met die SBD, die beskikbare foto's in die presiese verwysing verander en dit dan gebruik om die vereiste meetkunde -besonderhede te bepaal.

Aanvanklik het ek 'n vereenvoudigde 3D -model van hierdie vliegtuig in Blender ingebou met die beskikbare skaalplanne. Die beste daarvan is in 1999 gemaak deur Ian Stair (figuur 96-3):

Figuur 96-3 Die aanvanklike 3D-model, gebaseer op die tekeninge van Ian Stair

Ek het die skaalplanne in Blender geplaas as die beeldvoorwerpe ('leeg') en dit in die nominale D.V -afmetings geplaas: span - 875cm, lengte - 605cm, hoogte - 230cm. Ek het ook bykomende inligting gebruik: vlerkoordlengte - 115 cm, landingspoor - 170 cm. Soos u kan sien in figuur 96-3, het ek hierdie planne nie blindelings gevolg nie en het ek oorspronklike bloudrukke gebruik om aanpassings aan te bring. (Byvoorbeeld: die landingswiel, volgens die afmetings van die bloudruk, was groter as in die tekeninge van Trap).

Ek het verwag dat ek hierdie model verskeie kere sal moet "rek". Om dit vir hierdie doel voor te berei, het ek baie wysigers gebruik om die aanvanklike maas so eenvoudig as moontlik te hou. Byvoorbeeld: die boonste en onderste vleuel deel dieselfde gaas (omdat hulle dieselfde ribbes gebruik het). Ek het pas die boonste vleuel verander met 'n paar hulpvoorwerpe en Boole wysigers. Toe vee ek hierdie samestelling (die vlerke, ailerons en die hulpvoorwerpe wat sny) met die Mesh vervorming wysiger (Figuur 96-4):

Figuur 96-4 Wysigers, wat in die boonste vleuel gebruik word

As gevolg hiervan, die eenvoudige vervormende "boks" van die Mesh vervorming wysiger beheer die vorm van die boonste vleuel heeltemal.

Die punt van hierdie boonste vleuel het natuurlik 'n vereenvoudigde "blok" -vorm. Aangesien ek versoek is om die rompraamwerk te herskep, het ek ook die sykouse in hierdie model oorgeslaan. (Hulle is gemaak van stof wat rondom houtbeslag gestrek is, vasgemaak aan die staalraamwerk). Die basiese rompvorm van hierdie model stem ooreen met die vorm van hierdie raam - ek het selfs die rande van hierdie voorwerp afgerond met (in die Skuins wysiger) die waarskynlike radius van die langer buise (10 mm). Ek het net die rompbesonderhede bygevoeg wat my in staat sal stel om die silhoeët van die vliegtuig beter te pas by die foto's: die boonste toebehore, die rand van die kajuitopening en die enjinkap (sonder die onderkant). Die roer en hysbak is eenvoudige vliegtuie wat 10 mm dik gemaak is met die Stol wysigers.

Vir die eerste foto -bypassing het ek 'n syaansig gekies (Figuur 96-5), want op hierdie manier het ek die uiteindelike foute wat veroorsaak word deur verkeerde breedtes of onbehoorlike spanwydte posisie van die vleuelstutte uitgesluit. Oor die algemeen is die pas van so 'n foto 'n 'spoor en fout' -proses. Ek het die verwysingsfoto aan die kamera geheg en dit gedeeltelik deursigtig gemaak sodat ek my model daardeur kon sien. Hierdie kamera wys na die hulpdoelvoorwerp (Figuur 96-5):

Figuur 96-5 Pas die 3D-model in op die verwysingsfoto

Ek kon die model oor hierdie foto paneer/skuif deur die teikenvoorwerp van die kamera te skuif. Om die oriëntasie van die model te verander, het ek 'n wentelbaan rondom die model gemaak en die afstand aangepas. Daar was ook 'n ander veranderlike: die intensiteit van die perspektiefvervorming, wat beheer word deur die parameterlenslengteparameter. Terwyl ek hierdie parameters in die linkervenster aangepas het, kon ek in die regtervenster die huidige kamera -aansig sien. Om die regte projeksie te vind, het ek eers die kamera en teikenlokasies gevind wat 'n aanvaarbare benadering van die foto tot gevolg gehad het. Toe probeer ek om hierdie resultaat te verfyn deur die lengte van die kamera lens te verander.

In die ideale perspektiefprojeksie bly alle reguit lyne reguit. Hulle is dus reguit in die blender -kamera -aansig. Die foto's wat met die regte kameralense gemaak is, het egter addisionele sogenaamde 'loopvervorming'. (U kan die uiterste gevalle waarneem in die groothoek- "visoog" -foto's). Ek kon nie die vatvervormings van hierdie ou Fokker D.V -foto's skat en uiteindelik vergoed nie. Dus moes ek my 3D -model in verskeie soortgelyke foto's inpas, in die hoop dat elkeen op 'n ander manier verdraai word. Ek het aangeneem dat die modelvorm, wat al hierdie foto's so na as moontlik pas, die invloed van hul individuele vervormings tot die minimum beperk. (Dit is 'n eenvoudige reël van 'meerdere getuies'). Figuur 96-6 toon nog 'n gepaste foto. Hierdie keer is dit 'n klassieke weergawe:

Figuur 96-6 Nog 'n gepaste verwysingsfoto

As gevolg van hierdie bypassing het ek verskeie aanpassings in die model aangebring (Figuur 96-7):

Figuur 96-7 Geïdentifiseerde verskille met die plan van Stair

Die meeste van hulle was rondom die onderste vleuel gekonsentreer: ek moes dit 'n paar sentimeter afwaarts beweeg, en saam met die onderstel 10 cm vorentoe. Die onderste deel van die romp was ook 'n paar sentimeter laer as op die planne van Ian Stair. Dit lyk asof die vlerkbaai korter was: 50cm, en die vlerkoord: 110cm in plaas van 115cm. Hierdie laaste verskil is 'n verrassing, want die oorspronklike Fokker algemene bloudruk (die blou papier in figuur 96-2) spesifiseer hierdie lengte eksplisiet as "1150mm". As die wieldiameter egter reg is (71 cm, volgens 'n ander bloudruk), is hierdie vlerkoord ongeveer 110 cm (+/- 1 cm). Anders pas die vlerke nie by die foto's nie.

Let daarop dat ek twyfel gehad het oor die groot vleuelpunte in figuur 96-6, maar ek het voorlopig besluit dat dit 'n newe-effek is van die vereenvoudigde (dikker) punte van my model.

Toe begin ek hierdie model inpas by die foto's wat uit meer frontale rigtings geneem is. Eerstens het ek twee foto's van dieselfde Fokker DV 2727, met die naam "Hamster", gekarteer: (Figuur 96-8):

Figuur 96-8 Pas die model in 'n meer vooraansig aan

Soos u kan sien, was daar iets met die vlerkpunte verkeerd: al die ander elemente pas baie goed by die prentjie, maar hierdie wenke strek baie verder as die vlerke wat op die foto uitgebeeld word.

Om seker te maak dat hierdie spesifieke Fokker D.V wn 2721 nie 'n aangepaste weergawe was nie, het ek 'n foto van 'n ander vliegtuig gebruik (Figuur 96-9):

Figuur 96-9 Nog 'n gepaste foto van die vooraansig

Toe ek egter die vlerkspan van die model verminder (die vlerke langs hul spartjies afskaal), pas dit by die prentjie op hierdie foto (figuur 96-10):

Figuur 96-10 Die model met die verminderde vlerkspan

Natuurlik het ek hierdie korter vlerke gekyk na al die foto's wat voorheen gekarteer is. (Ek het selfs 'n hulp-byvoeging in Python voorberei, waarmee ek met 'n enkele knoppie tussen die volgende foto's en die projeksies daarvan kan wissel). Dit lyk asof die ware vlerkspan van die Fokker D.V 815 cm was, en sy ribbes was 37 cm van mekaar af.

Op die oomblik kan ons tot die gevolgtrekking kom dat hierdie vliegtuig 'n ander lengte/spanverhouding het as wat in sy algemene beskrywing gespesifiseer is. Maar watter van hierdie twee dimensies is waar: die spanwydte of die lengte?

As die Fokker DV-spanwydte 815 cm was, dan was die wieldiameter 71 cm (soos in die bloudrukke van die landingsgestel), die deursnee van die enjinkap was 107 (+/- 1) cm en die lengte van die vliegtuig was 605 cm (soos in die bloudrukke):

Figuur 96-11 Is hierdie vliegtuig 605 cm lank?

Andersins, as die spanwydte van die Fokker D.V -vlerke 875 cm was, was die wieldiameter proporsioneel 77 cm (in plaas van 71 cm van die bloudrukke), die lengte van die romp 650 cm en die deursnee van die enjinkap was 115 cm.

Die deursnee van die Fokker D.V -roterende enjin (Gnome/Oberursel) was 101 cm. Die meer waarskynlike deursnee van die enjinkap is dus 107 cm, en dit impliseer dat die lengte van die romp inderdaad 605 cm was, soos gespesifiseer in die Fokker -bloudrukke.

As die vlerkspan van hierdie vliegtuig 875 cm sou wees, sou die man in figuur 96-9 193 cm hoog wees. Dit is minder moontlik, veral as u 'n soortgelyke skatting doen vir die ander foto's van die Fokker D.V's en hul bemanning. Al hierdie mans sou meer as 180 cm wees! Selfs vandag is dit skaars moontlik. Boonop was mans 100 jaar gelede ietwat korter!

U kan oplet dat twee van die vier dimensies wat in die algemene blokker van Fokker D.V gegee is, onwaar was. Boonop verskil hierdie prentjie in baie aspekte van die regte vliegtuig (Figuur 96-12):

Figuur 96-12 Algehele afmetings in die oorspronklike blokker van Fokker D.V

Waarom spesifiseer die Fokker 'algemene' bloudruk die vlerkspan as 875 cm? Miskien is dit oorspronklik met die hand geskryf as '8150', en lees iemand '1' as '7'? Ek kan ook nie verduidelik waarom dit sê dat die vlerkoord "1150" was in plaas van "1100" nie. Miskien omdat "1150" die akkoordlengte was van die vroeëre Fokker -tweedekker van soortgelyke grootte - die D.II? Die D.V was in baie aspekte soortgelyk aan D.II. Hierdie korter akkoordlengte word ten minste bevestig in 'n boek uit 1918:

Figuur 96-13 Afmetings van die Fokker D.V in eng. Willy Meiss se boek uit 1918

Soos u kan sien, is die omvang van die D.II en D.V in hierdie tabel identies: 8750. Iemand in die Fokker -kantoor kan hierdie syfer net van een reël na 'n ander kopieer ...

Ek het geen foto wat die proporsies van die hysbak sou verklap nie. C. West stel egter voor dat die Fokker D.V dieselfde roer en hysbak kan gebruik as in die D.III en D.IV (Figuur 96-14):

Figuur 96-14 Oorspronklike bloudrukke van die Fokker D.III / D.IV roer en hysbak

Ek het gekyk of die D.III -roervorm perfek pas by die foto's, en daarom het ek die hysbak gevorm volgens die D.III / D.IV -bloudruk. Figuur 96-15 toon die resultaat in vergelyking met die aanvanklike skaalplanne:

Figuur 96-15 Verskille tussen die opgedateerde model en die skaalplanne van Ian Stair (bo-aansig)

Ek het ook probeer om die kontoere van Fokker D.V -ribbes uit die foto's van die vervaardiger te herskep. Dit lyk asof die D.V -vliegtuig dieselfde is, maar effens dikker as in die D.II (Figuur 96-16):

Figuur 96-16 Vergelyking van die Fokker D.II en Fokker D.V vliegtuig

Uiteindelik, toe die algehele meetkunde geverifieer is, kon ek die ooreenstemmende foto's gebruik as die gedetailleerde verwysings by die herskep van die rompraam (Figuur 96-17):

Figuur 96-17 Herskep die rompstruktuur met behulp van 'n fabrieksfoto van Maart 1917

As die verwysingsfoto behoorlik ooreenstem, kan u dit net so maklik as die skaalplan gebruik. U hoef net gewoond te raak aan die bou van die 3D-model in 'n nie-ortogonale aansig.

Ek het natuurlik ook die ander foto's gebruik om die meetkunde van hierdie struktuur na te gaan (Figuur 96-18):

Figuur 96-18 Kontroleer die rompstruktuur op ander foto's van dieselfde vliegtuig

Met behulp van hierdie foto's het ek die model van sy rompraam (die staaldeel, gemaak van gelaste buise), gebou. Figuur 96-19 toon die finale resultaat: 'n herskepte meetkunde van die byna vergete WWI -vegter:

Figuur 96-19 Die 3D-model wat die sleutelgeometrie van die Fokker D.V herskep

Soos ek vroeër genoem het, is hierdie model uit vereenvoudigde komponente gebou - dit lei byvoorbeeld tot die "blokkies" punte van die boonste vleuel. Dit ontbreek ook die enjin, kabels, kajuit, ens. Dit vorm egter 'n stewige basis vir 'n meer gedetailleerde model, of ordentlike skaalplanne.

Met die foto-ooreenstemmingsmetode kon ek 'n klein bydrae lewer om die historiese data oor hierdie vliegtuig by te werk. Die mees verrassende "ontdekking" was dat die werklike Fokker D.V -vlerkspan - met 0,6 m korter is as die span wat in al die boeke gepubliseer is (8,15 m, in plaas van 8,75 m). Ek noem so 'n fout ''n Aristoteles se effek'. Hierdie naam kom van die volgende verhaal:

Baie eeue gelede, in die Middeleeue, was alles wat oorgebly het na die magtige Romeinse Ryk 'n paar ruïnes en 'n paar ou geskrifte wat in die kloosters bewaar is. Die monnike het dit gekopieer, sodat die ander kon leer oor die half vergete idees van Griekse filosowe. Een van die gewildste boeke was Aristoteles se "Natural History", wat die wêreld van diere en plante beskryf het. Een van sy kopieerders het 'n klein fout begaan en die sin "vlieë het ses bene" verander in "vlieë het agt bene". Ongelukkig is die kopie met hierdie sin as basis gebruik vir die meeste ander eksemplare van hierdie boek. In werklikheid herhaal die ander monnike eeue lank die stelling dat "lêers agt bene het". Niemand het probeer om die bene van die dier wat op die rand van sy lessenaar geloop het, te tel nie!

As u dink dat so iets slegs in die 'donker middeleeue' kan gebeur, kyk dan na hierdie fragment van die Fokker D.V geometriese data (dit is gekopieer uit een van die publikasies oor sy vliegtuie):

Figuur 96-20 Voorbeeld van foutiewe gegewens, herhaal in 'n publikasie oor die Fokker D.V

Die Fokker D.V -vleuelgebied word hier gespesifiseer as "15,5m 2". U kan hierdie gebied in baie ander bronne vind. Met die span- en koordlengte is dit egter redelik maklik om die vlerkoppervlakte te skat vir so 'n Tweede Wêreldoorlog -tweedekker, waar beide vlerke dieselfde spanwydte en 'n vaste koord gehad het. Kom ons doen dit vir die figure wat in hierdie prent gespesifiseer word, en bereken die oppervlakte van ekwivalente "reghoekige" vlerke:

“Reghoekige” vleueloppervlakte = 2* (8,75 m* 1,16 m) = 20,3 m 2

Die sweepback van die boonste vleuel het geen invloed op hierdie resultaat nie. Nadat ons hierdie gebied aangepas het vir die nie-reghoekige vleuelpunte (-0,85m 2), en die uitsny rondom die kajuit (-0,58 m 2), sou ons die vleueloppervlakte van ongeveer 18,9m 2 kry! Selfs as ons aanvaar dat die Fokker in daardie vroeë dae nie die romp tussen die vleuels in die vleuelgebied ingesluit het nie (0,87 m 2), sal die resultaat 18 m 2 wees.

Hierdie vinnige berekening toon aan dat iemand wat die afmetings in figuur 96-20 gepubliseer het nie hierdie syfers nagegaan het nie. (U kan so 'n berekening met die hand doen, op 'n stuk papier). Dit is 'n suiwer "Aristoteles -effek"!

As ons egter kyk na die kleiner afmetings van die vlerke wat uit my foto -bypassing verkry is, sal die resultaat baie nader aan die gepubliseerde gebied wees:

“Reghoekige” vleueloppervlakte = 2* (8,15 m* 1,10 m) = 17,93 m 2

Ek skat die werklike vleueloppervlakte (aangepas vir die vorm van die vleuelpunte: -0,82m 2 en die uitsny: -0,50 m 2) as 16,6m 2. (Hierdie verstellings is effens kleiner as in die vorige geval as gevolg van die korter vleuelkoord en die smaller spasiëring). As ons die oppervlakte van die romp tussen die onderste vlerke (0,83 m 2) van hierdie resultaat uitsluit, kry ons 15,8 m 2. Dit verskil net van die “15,5 m 2” -gebied met 2%.


Algemene eienskappe

  • Bemanning: een
  • Lengte: 6,05 m (19 voet 10 in)
  • Spanwydte: 8,75 m (28 voet 9 in)
  • Hoogte: 2,30 m (7 voet 6 in)
  • Vleuel gebied: 15,5 m²
  • Leë gewig: 363 kg (800 lb)
  • Totale gewig: 566 kg (1,248 lb)
  • Kragsentrale: 1 × Oberursel U.I roterende, 82 kW (110 pk)
  • Maksimum spoed: 170 km/h (106 mph)
  • Reeks: 240 km (149 myl)
  • Diensplafon: 3.900 m (12.795 voet)
  • Klimtempo: 2,6 m/s (520 voet/min)

'N Kort geskiedenis van die Albatros D.V

L Die geskiedenis van die Eerste Wêreldoorlog en veral die primitiewe seleksie van destydse vlieënde masjiene, die name van verskillende vliegtuie wat hul merk op die geskiedenis gemaak het, kom vinnig na vore. Name wat mense vir lugvaart so bekend geword het. Aan die geallieerde kant van die lyne, Sopwith se legendariese kameel, die Franse Nieuport- en SPAD -reeks, die Bristol Fighter. Vliegtuie wat kruise op hul vlerke gedra het, het ook byna huishoudelike name geword, ten minste in lugvaartkringe.


Die eerste was die Fokker E.III of Eindekker, wat die eerste tipe diens was wat suksesvol deur die lemme van sy skroef geskiet het. Die bekendste van die Teutoniese gevleuelde krygers was sonder twyfel die kenmerkende Fokker Dr.1 Dreidekker of Triplane, wat twee keer deur die geskiedenis bekend geword het, eers deur 'n lid van die Duitse aristokrasie wat die mees bekwame lugbestryder van die konflik geword het, en daarna, dekades later, deur 'n tekenprentbrak. Slegs 320 van hierdie masjiene is gedurende daardie tydperk gebou en het slegs 'n paar maande lank 'n plek in die voorste diens geniet.


Die Fokker D.VII, nog 'n meer suksesvolle en ook goed onthoude, was nog 'n meesterstuk van die genie van Reinhold Platz, wat onderskei is deur die naam in die Verdrag van Versaillles te wees, maar dit het weer 'n voorste loopbaan van skaars agt maande geniet . Sonder twyfel is die Duitse gevegsmasjien van die Groot Oorlog wat ons meer as enige ander moet onthou, die Albatros -reeks enkelsitvegters wat die geveg langer as Frankryk in die lug gedra het as al die Fokker -vegters saam.


B In die tweede helfte van 1916 het Duitsland 'n nuwe gevegsverkenning nodig gehad om oor te neem van die Fokker E.III 'Eindekker' wat 'n tydperk van meerderwaardigheid geniet het, maar wat toe tot 'n einde gekom het. Verskeie swaarder en beter gewapende masjiene het verskyn, maar kon nie die prestasie lewer wat nodig was totdat die nuwe Albatros D.I in Augustus daardie jaar verskyn het nie. Die nuwe vegter, wat deur Robert Thelen ontwerp is, beskik oor twee 7,92 mm Spandau -masjiengewere en 'n 160 -pk Mercedes -enjin wat gesamentlik uitstekende vuurkrag en uitstekende klim- en kruissnelhede bied. Teen die einde van 1916 was meer as 50 D.I's aktief aan die voorkant, maar Albatros het reeds die verbeterde model D.II. Dit bevat 'n hersiene uitleg tussen die kajuit en die boonste hoofvliegtuig, wat die sigbaarheid vir die vlieënier aansienlik verbeter het. Nog 'n verbetering was die verwydering van die lywige radiatorgemonteerde verkoelers ten gunste van 'n spoelvleuel-gemonteerde eenheid. Meer as 200 DII's was reeds teen Januarie 1917 in diens, maar omdat hulle nie op hul louere wou rus nie, het ingenieurs van Albatros reeds die volgende hersiening, die D.III, gelewer, so was die eis om die gevegsvliegtuie van die tyd voortdurend te verbeter ten einde behou daardie voorsprong.


T die Albatros D.III het die kenmerkende 'V' stutstut sesquiplane -reëling bekendgestel wat by die Franse Nieuport -verkenners geleen is. Dit het die ontwerp goed gedien en bied nog beter snelheid en klimprestasie van die D.II. Gedurende 1917 het Albatros D.III's volgehoue ​​sukses behaal op die voorkant en die vervaardiging van hierdie model het tot vroeg in 1918 voortgeduur, alhoewel die nuwe D.V en D.Va in Julie aan die voorkant verskyn het.


Sisällysluettelo

Fokker-Flugzeugwerke toimi Berliinin Johannisthalissa. Sen M.2-kone voitti Saksan keisarillisten ilmavoimien (pääesikunnan alainen toiminto, ei itsenäinen aselaji) tarjouskilpailun, ja yhtiöstä kasvoi vähitellen yksi Saksan suurimmista lentokonetehtaista. Vuonna 1913 tehdas muutti Schweriniin.

Ensimmäisen maailmansodan alussa yhtiö teki yhtenä monista toimittajista erilaisia ​​lentokoneita Saksan ilmavoimille. Kaupallinen läpimurto tuli sattumalta kesällä 1915, as sodanig kan ons 'n groot aantal kehittää yksipaikkaisia ​​hävittäjälentokoneita gebruik.

Ranskalainen hävittäjälentäjä ja urheilusankari Roland Garros kan nie meer Morane-Saulnier-yksitasoonsa ainutlaatuisen potkurin läpi ampuvan konekiväärin gebruik nie. Ons kan ook 'n metaaloplossing gebruik, maar dit kan ook 'n goeie oplossing wees. Garros pystyi näin lentämään viholliskoneiden kimppuun ketterällä yksipaikkaisella koneella, eikä hänen tarvinnut varoa ilmassa vaurioittavansa omaa potkuriaan tai siipiään. Aiemmin valtaosa aseistetuista sotakoneista oliut hitaita kaksipaikkaisia, joissa tähystäjä oli toiminut käsin suunnattavan konekiväärin ampujana.

Saksalaisten onneksi Garros teki huhtikuussa 1915 pakkolaskun heidän puolelleen. Fokker-yhtiön insinöörit pääsivät heti tutkimaan sotasaaliskonetta.

Yhtiö paranteli Garrosin idee. Kyk na 'n veilige oplossing, maar u kan ook 'n spesiale koekie gebruik. Uusi laite asennettiin Fokkerin kehittämään E.1-yksitasoon (E = Eindekker). Heinäkuusta 1915 alkaen tämä kevyt pieni hävittäjä alkoi kylvää tuhoa länsirintamalla vastustajan raskaiden ja hitaiden koneiden parissa.

Fokkerin ”hittituotteen” menestyskausi kesti kevääseen 1916 asti. Vaikka E.1 oli lento-ominaisuuksiltaan oikukas kone, eikä tahdistinlaite toiminut täysin luotettavasti, mutta vastapuolellakaan ei ollut parempia tarjolla.

Näin hyvän alkumenestyksen jälkeen Fokkerilla oli etulyöntiasema Saksan ilmavoimien seuraavissa tarjouskilpailuissa. Yhtiötä suosittiin, vaikka kilpailijoista (Albatross, Roland, Junkers jne.) Moni olisi tehnyt teknisesti yhtä toimivia tai edistyksellisempiä malleja.

Kuuluisin Fokkerin ensimmäisen maailmansodan konetyypeistä lienee ketterä Fokker Dr.I -kolmitaso. Ensimmäinen globaali ilmasodan sankari Manfred von Richthofen (”Punainen paroni”) käytti viimeisinä kuukausinaan ko. mallia.

Teknisesti yhtiön onnistunein hävittäjä oli keväällä 1918 esitelty kaksitaso Fokker D.VII. Nopea, virtaviivainen ja kestävä vaneriverhoiltu kone oli niin pelätty vastustaja, etta sodan jälkeen Saksaa kiellettiin nimeltä mainiten valmistamasta niitä.

Seuraava malli, ylätaso Fokker D.VIII, olisi ollut vieläkin edistyksellisempi, mutta sitä Fokkerin tehtaat eivät ennättäneet saada kunnolla tuotantoon ennen Saksan häviötä.

Hävinneen Saksan kaaoksessa ylijäämä-Fokkerit kulkeutuivat talvella 1918–1919 hämärien liikemiesten kauppavälineinä ympäri Eurooppaa. Samoin keinoin Fokkerin tehdas siirtyi Hollantiin. Yhtiön rahoittaja oli Steenkolen Handels Vereniging (nykyinen SHV Holdings), ja yhtiön nimi oli aluksi Nederlandse Vliegtuigenfabriek - Anthony Fokkerin osuus siitä piilotettiin Ententen viranomaisilta. Tämä oli Saksan varautumista rauhanehtoihin.

Fokker avasi elokuussa 1919 Amsterdamissa het 'n nuwe N.V. [1] Anthony Fokker toi junalastin Fokker D.VII- ja C.I -sotilaskoneita sekä varaosia.

1930-luvulla Fokkerin matkustajakoneet olivat merkittävässä markkina-asemassa globaaleilla markkinoilla.

Fokker rakensi sotilaskoneita ydele Hollannin, Tanskan ja Suomen ilmavoimille. Suomen ilmavoimat oli harvinainen poikkeus: se osti muun muassa Fokker C.V-, Fokker C.X-, Fokker D.X- ja Fokker D.XXI -koneita.

1920-luvulla Fokkerin suurin menestys oli kolmimoottorinen F.VIIa/3m-matkustajakone (Trimotor). Die bestuurder van die Fokker kan ook 'n nuwe Ford Trimotor -motor hê.

Toinen maailmansota tuhosi Fokkerin tehtaat, joita oli käytetty Saksan sotataloudessa.

Vuonna 1946 Alankomaihin perustettiin Nederlands Instituut voor Vlietuigontwikkeling (NIV, vuodesta 1971 alkaen NIVR (R = Ruimtevaart), jolloin mukaan tulivat toi avaruusteollisuuden tutkimustarpeet), jonka tarkoitus oli lentokoneteollisuuden jälleen. Samana vuonna alkoi Fokker S -11 -koulukoneen kehitystyö -Hollannin ilmavoimat olivat luvanneet suunnittelun alussa tilata suuren määrän koneita, mik lo lo pohjan tehtaan toiminnalle.

Vuonna 1951 perustettiin uusi Fokkerin tehdas Amsterdamin Schipholin lentoaseman luo. Ons kan ook die F-104 Starfighter (jonka kauppoihin liittyvästä lahjonnasta lankesi varjo kuningashuoneeseen, prinssi Bernhardiin, asti) gebruik. Toinen tehdas sijaitsi Woensdrechtissä.

Vuonna 1958 tuli myyntiin Fokker F-27 "Friendship". Ons bied 'n lys van voorbeelde: 1958–1986. F-27-konetta seurasivat Fokker F-28 ”Fellowship”, Fokker F50, Fokker F70 en Fokker F100. F-27-konetta kaytetään yhä sekä sotilas- että siviilikoneena. Suomen ilmavoimat käyttää sitä muun muassa laskuvarjojoukkojen kuljetuskoneena.

Vuonna 1969 Fokker liittoutui Bremenissä toimivan Vereinigte Flugtechnische Werken (osa ERNOa) kanssa, jolla oli monikansallinen omistuspohja. Yhtymä kehitti epäonnistuneen syöttöliikennekoneen VFW-614: n. Euroopan avaruusjärjestö ESA tilasi ERNO-VFW-Fokker GmbH -yhtymältä kesäkuussa 1974 Spacelab-laboratorium NASAn avaruussukkulaan.

1990-luvun lopussa Schipholin lentoasemalla Amsterdamissa toiminut Fokker ajautui vaikeuksiin brasilialaisen Embraerin vallatessa moderneilla koneillaan Fokker Friendshipin kokoluokan markkinat. Die kompetisie vir 1996.

Hollantilainen Stork Fokker Aerospace Group -yhtiö jatkaa Fokkerin toimintaa mutta vain lentokoneiden osavalmistajana.

Fokkerin avaruusosasto muuttui erilliseksi Dutch Space -yhtiöksi, joka siirtyi EADS: n omistukseen vuonna 2006.


Fokker D.V - Geskiedenis

Die FokkerNutz Achim Engels Geboude Fokker D.VIII -reproduksie

Deel 1 en Deel 2

Dit is die uiteindelike bron vir inligting oor die strukturele besonderhede van hierdie unieke vliegtuig.

278 foto's van hoë gehalte toon elke detail van hierdie vliegtuig. Dit is 'n moet vir almal wat belangstel in vroeë lugvaart en Fokker -vliegtuie. Alle foto's in hierdie prentdokumentêr is geneem tydens die bou van drie outentieke reproduksievliegtuie van hierdie tipe.

Nog nooit het iemand hierdie vliegtuig in hierdie diepte gewys nie. Alles word getoon, ongeag of dit die struktuur is van die onbedekte vleuel tydens die vervaardiging daarvan of die sweis van die staalbuis -romp. Geen geheim bly onduidelik nie.

Hierdie boek is nou beskikbaar as aflaai.

Geen afleweringskoste nie! Geen aflewering vertraag! Geen wag nie! Onmiddellike genot!

Dit kom as 'n PDF -lêer.

278 Illustrasies, 118 bladsye. Alles in kleur.

Geskiedenis, kleure, reproduksie, sertifisering

Die laaste geheime word onthul in hierdie gratis handboek. Nog 80 beelde onderstreep wat nog te sê is oor hierdie vliegtuig. Die unieke kleurplate toon die vliegtuie met veelkleurige vlerke. Dit is die eerste keer in die geskiedenis dat 'n voortplantingsvliegtuig hierdie kleurskema bevat. Die boek verduidelik in detail wat die redes agter hierdie merkwaardige kamoefleringpatroon is.

Verder bespreek hierdie bundel hoe 'n voortplantingsvliegtuig soos hierdie vervaardig en gesertifiseer word, vrag getoets en nog baie meer.

Kleurplate identifiseer die kleure van die voorafgedrukte vliegtuigweefsel wat dikwels die 'quot' Lozenge & quot -patroon genoem word.

Swart en wit beelde illustreer die geskiedenis en gebruik van die vliegtuig, insluitend die ontroue vlerkmislukkings en bevindings van die ongelukskommissie.

Hierdie boek is nou beskikbaar as aflaai.

Geen afleweringskoste nie! Geen aflewering vertraag! Geen wag nie! Onmiddellike genot!

Dit kom as 'n PDF -lêer.

80 illustrasies, 50 bladsye.

Ons huisadres is:

Achim Engels, Heubeundstrasse 1, 73116 Waeschenbeuren - Duitsland


Windsock - Mini Datafile 011 - Fokker D.V

h. e Fokker D.V was werklik 'n vlieëniersvliegtuig en weerspieël as sodanig Anthony H G Fokker se ongelooflike talent om 'n vliegtuig te toets en dit perfek af te stel. Die ervare Duitse vloot- en Pfalz -toetsvlieënier uit die Eerste Wêreldoorlog, Ernst Ditzuleit, onthou die lewendige Fokker D.V met plesier: 'Ek het die Fokker D. V. hoofsaaklik by die Hallenschutzstation (lugskuurbasis) Tondem gevlieg. Soos ek onthou,

die D. V is nie in aktiewe gevegte deur die vloot gebruik nie omdat dit nie meer as 2500 meter (8200 voet) geklim het nie. Die vlieg eienskappe was buitengewoon, soortgelyk aan die Sopwith-enkel sitplek wat ek in vergelyking gevlieg het. Die D.V het 'n baie kort opstygloop, spring na ongeveer 15 of 20 meter in die lug, klim op sy eie tot ongeveer 2000 meter (6562 voet). Dit was buitengewoon manoeuvreerbaar.

As u die motor se ontsteking afskakel, kan u dit prakties ter plaatse draai. Baie reageer op die kontroles waarop dit onmiddellik gereageer het. Goeie sweweienskappe, maar u moet oppas om net oor die grond en bo die spoed te vlieg, sodat dit nie na links val en neerstort nie. Selfs 'n opvlam in 'n hoogte van 'n halwe meter was van kritieke belang, want dit sou blitsvinnig na die kant toe val.

OP DIE VOORBLAD: In ongerepte vorm en pas aangekom uit die fabriek, Fokker D.V 2688/16 (wen 1276) by 'n Beierse opleidingseenheid - sien ook bladsy 4.

Hierbo, Fokker D.V -692/17 afrigter met bewapening verwyder. Links, blykbaar ontwikkel uit die vroeëre D.II, hierdie Fokker-prototipe, met Tony Fokker aan boord, met die enkelbaai-sel en die boonste vleuel wat teruggeswaai is wat die Fokker D.V. In die lig van onlangse navorsingsbevindinge, is dit byna seker die eerste prototipe van die M 22 -ontwikkelingsreeks. Die enjin is 'n 100-pk Oberursel U.I-draaier.

Links, nog 'n M 22-prototipe wat baie van die Fokker D.V-kenmerke toon, insluitend die agterwaartse vleuel, die afgeronde romp en die onderstelstruktuur. The broad-bladed airscrew was often used with the 100hp Oberursel U.I rotary engine. The photo number (704) places this photo in early August 1916. Below, the Fokker D.V 2710/16 (M 22, win 1068) production machine photographed on the Schwerin airfield in October 1916 prior to being shipped to Adlershof for static-load testing. Compared to the previous photo the fuselage length is shorter and the centre-section struts have been reconfigured.

After touch down it had a short run. I flew the D. V for months without an accident. However, Albatros pilots experienced difficulties accustomed to the lazy flight characteristics of their machines, they either crashed the D. V or avoided it altogether. On the Flanders Front I flew the Albatros D.III and D. V They were torture for me. The Fokker D. V to the Albatros . fighter was like a thoroughbred racehorse compared to a farm nag. I regard the Fokker D. Vas the leichtsinnigste of Fokker's designs.(1) You could lift the fuselage with two fingers, the engine was held by four bolts - my way of explaining its "racy" charaCteristics of which I was so specially fond. ' During the Battle of the Somme in the summer of 1916, the Fokker monoplane fighters were chased from the sky by the speedier and more maneou-

Forssman correspondence. Villehad Forssman, a Swede whose engineering consulting firm in Johannisthal provided assistance to Fokker particularly in patent matters, had connections with Bruning & Sohn AG - owner of the 'four largest plywood veneer factories' in Germany. In April 1916 Forssman proposed the idea of building wings entirely of thin plywood veneer manufactured by Bruning.(2) Initially Fokker vrable Allied biplane fighters. The had provided drawings of the Fokker German Fliegertruppe, quick to M20, now identified as a wire-braced respond, ordered biplane fighters from experimental monoplane, but after Fokker, Halberstadt, Roland and Fokker dropped the project, Bruning Albatros which began to reach the agreed to build veneer wings for a 'new Front in numbers in the autumn of single-bay biplane' later identified as the M 22.(3) 1916. Although Fokker's biplane fighters, Original documents concerning the the DJ (l20-hp Mercedes), DJI (lOO-hp Fokker D.V (M 22) development are Oberursel U.l) and D.lII (160-hp scarce but from a few existing phoOberursel U.III) saw limited combat tographs it is possible to engage in service, they were inferior to the first- what I call 'photo archaeology' to idenrate Albatros fighters. Owing to struc- tify the M 22 prototype and arrive at an tural and quality control shortcomings approximate date of appearance. The at the Fokker factory, the Fokker DJV . well-known photo No.S69, (illustrated was purchased as a fighter-trainer and opposite) of an unidentified Fokker specifically excluded from combat ser- fighter fitted with a single-bay, sweptvice, and it might be said the same was back wing cellule that is almost identitrue of the Fokker D.Y. cal to the Fokker D.V configuration proWe first learn of a new single-bay vides the clue. From a chronological biplane that Fokker was developing comparison of all Fokker photo numfrom the recently discovered Fokker- bers, it is possible to date the photo between June 23 and July 27 1916, a time frame which coincides with the Forssman mention of the 'new singlebay biplane' that he later labelled the M 22 in the letter of September 13 1916. Incidentally the Bruning veneer wings were sent to Adlershof on November 24 1916 for flight and static load tests . Whether these were ever performed is

Left, the disassembled Fokker D.V 2710/16 being rolled into a hangar at Adlershof. Because of a variety of failures involving weak wing spars and rudder strength, the load test lasted from October 12 to November 1 1916 as two new wings with reinforced wing spars and three different rudders were tested before the aircraft was approved for military service.

impossible to ascertain.(4) By October 1916 sufficient progress with the M 22 design and flight testing had been made for Idflieg (Inspektion der Fliegertruppen - inspectorate of flying troops) to order 200 Fokker O.V fighter-trainers for 'school use'. These were numbered 0.2600-2799/16. Power was supplied by a 100-hp Oberursel U.I rotary engine. In view of the poor record of previous production aircraft, the O.V was subject to a stringent typetest and acceptance program. Taken at random from the production line to avoid special preparation, aircraft 0.2710/16 (win 1068) underwent static load testing at Adlershof between October 12 and November 1 1916. Fokker had to supply two reinforced wing cellules fitted with strengthened spars, and a beefed-up rudder before the D.V was able to meet the required factor of safety. (5) In February 1917, a second production batch consisting of 50 D.V fighters, (0.650/17 to 0.699/17) was ordered, followed by a final batch of 50 aircraft (0.1600/17 to 0.1649/17) ordered in April 1917. Acceptances began in December 1916 and effectively ended in July 1917 (see table on inside rear cover). Contrary to what has been written elsewhere, documents show that from inception, Idflieg never regarded the D.V as a frontline fighter. On December 16 1916, Idflieg decreed that 'as far as new Fokker aircraft are concerned, they will be used to equip schools.'(6) In spite of a boast by Fokker management that 'the top speed of 160 km/h (99.4 mph) was at the time not attained by any of the many types equipped with this engine,' the 100-hp Oberursel U.l engine simply did not

Top, Fokker 'D.VI' in OctoberNovember 1917. This fighter prototype was developed in parallel with the Fokker D.V but differed in minor aspects especially centre-section structure and the wider gap between fuselage and top wing. In Autumn 1916, Fokker abandoned the 'M' designation and for a limited time used the 'D' factory designation. The Fokker 'D.VI' prototype should not be confused with the Fokker D.VI fighter that appeared in mid-1918. Centre, an early production Fokker D.V framework lacking engine, armament and fabric covering photographed at the factory in October 1916. Right, an Fokker D.V framework of the last production series dated AprilJune 1917. Some minor changes from the preceding framework can be seen particularly the plywood reinforcement of the tail section, but this modification may not have been introduced into the production sequence. 2

have the guts to compete with modern fighters in the 160-200-hp class. The under-powered D.V fighters were employed primarily in flight schools, home defence flights or as trainers attached to combat units to introduce pilots with the operating characteristics of the rotary engine, scheduled to arrive with fighters such as the Fokker DRI, Pfalz DVm or Siemens-Schuckert D.III. In February 1918, 25 D.V trainers (the maximum) were listed in the frontline inventory. The D.V fighter-trainer was also flown by naval defence flights (combined with training service) at Cuxhaven, Kiel, Hage, and the naval schools at Putzig and Langfuhr. The German Navy had at least 72 D.V fighter-trainers in service.

Left, while bored ground crew wonder about their next home leave, a fighter pilot trainee gets acquainted with the controls of Fokker D.V 2669/16. Used only as a trainer and for base defence flights, the Fokker D.V was not flown in combat. Centre, a naval rating posing in Fokker D.V 2676/16 which was accepted at the factory in February 1917. A single Spandau LMG 08 machine gun provided the armament. The scalloped fabric covering the aileron attachment is clearly in evidence. Below, Leutnant Hans Elmenhorst died in the crash of Fokker D.V 2687/16 (win 1275) in May 1917 at Bavarian Flieger Schule 1 at Schleissheim. As with many trainers, the older Spandau LMG 08 machine gun was installed. " .'

A final question needs clarification: who designed the D.V? The 'new singlebay biplane' design was already underway and probably flying at the time chief designer Martin Kreutzer died in a flying accident on June 27 1916. The Forssman correspondence dealing with the various wooden wings was signed off by Liebig, Moser and Fokker. From the Forssman correspondence it is obvious that Platz was involved only when metal structural fittings for wooden wings were required. It is impossible that Platz had the overall design function in the creation of the D.Y as alleged by Weyl. Fokker and Kreutzer were pilots. To my knowledge Platz never learned to fly - and the D.V was above all a pilot's aircraft. It was Fokker's remarkable flying skills and ability to winkle out the problems that made the D.V a success. While Fokker may never have bent over the drawing board and worked a slide rule, his contribution to aircraft design as test pilot remains unassailable. Finally, we now know that the all-veneer, wooden wing was entirely Forssman's, not Platz's, inspiration. Going one step further, it could only have been Fokker, after flying the thickwinged, all-metal Junkers monoplanes, who inspired his engineering department to develop the all-woD'd en, internally-braced monocoque wing that was destined to become a post-war Fokker hallmark. That the aircraft were assembled and appropriate metalwork expertly welded by Platz's small team, I doubt not, but his design contribution remains minor. Table 1 shows the Fokker D.V acceptances of 299 production aircraft (excluded is the static test aircraft D.2710/16). At the Front the Fokker D.V was used to train pilots in operating characteristics of the rotary engine, consequently beginning in late 1917 the D.V frontline inventory increased proportionally with the arrival of the Fokker. Dr.I.

Top, another aspect of the cover subject, D.V 2688/16 (win 1276). Seen hanging from the bracing wire is the rectangular port fuselage access panel pushed clear for maintenance. The generous aperture allows plenty of room for the cable. Next, as the ground crew turns the airscrew to prime the engine, a pilottrainee receives last minute flight instructions in Fokker D.V 2699/16 at a naval air station. Above, Feldwebel Kneer was lucky to escape the flaming crash of Fokker D.V on May 16 1917. The work number is 1278 and from inference the serial number may be D.2700/16. This is one of the few photos showing 'a Spadau LMG 08/15 instead of a LMG 08 installed. Right, Fokker D.V 2786/16, accepted on March 1917. 4


Copper State 1/48 Fokker D V

A product of late 1916, the Fokker D V never received the acclaim that its more famous stablemates enjoyed. Underpowered and deemed structurally questionable by the German authorities, it managed to earn its keep as an advanced trainer. Reportedly pleasant to fly, it soldiered on through 1918 in the schools and in a few frontline units as a hack. Perhaps its greatest contribution was allowing the Fokker company to stay busy and solvent in the lean time before the DR-I and D VII were sprung upon the world. Around 300 were built.

Upon opening the box of the Copper State 1/48 Fokker D V kit, I was struck by the seeming completeness. Main airframe parts are in a pleasing tannish-pink resin with fine details done in photo-etched nickel-silver and cast pewter. Instructions are rather sketchy, but anyone familiar with biplanes and multi-media kits shouldn't have too much trouble. However, great scale drawings of the real item by MartinDigmayer are included, and these supply most of the answers to most of the construction questions.

I've worked with all these media before, but I must confess that this was my first venture into building a model whose main parts were all resin. Another confession is that I cordially dislike cast metal and photo-etch for any structural members such as struts. With these confessions and prejudices out of the way, I'll begin the kit!

A quick rinse in soapy water to remove mold gunk allowed a closer inspection of the resin bits. NO pits or tiny air bubbles! Geen! The wings are perhaps the best part of the kit, having very thin trailing edges and just the right amount of rib detail. Five minutes of general refinement and leading edge cleanup with a sanding stick and the wings are ready. Moving to the tail surfaces, I found the outlines to be good, with the rudder needing just a few gentle kisses with sandpaper to pull it into shape. However, unlike the wings, these parts are overly thick planks and lack finesse. Since the rib detail wasn't so great to begin with, I elected to sand and file these parts to the correct cross section, first marking the perimeters with a felt tip pen. The rudder was just generally thinned down, while the elevators were given a slight airfoil shape and razor thin trailing edges. Despite this rather harsh sounding treatment, the job was accomplished in a few minutes and was much easier than scratchbuilding new parts. To get all of the cleanup out of the way, I next tackled the fuselage, grinding out and enlarging the cockpit cavity. The fuselage is split horizontally and a test fit revealed a warp or bow in the pieces. If the nose was held together, the tail halves wouldn't meet. Instead of the heat-and-bend method of straightening, I just flat sanded the halves as one would a vac form. This actually brought the model into true conformity with the drawings. The overall outline looks good, but the major weakness of the kit is the fuselage. The detail is too soft and indistinct - the stringers of the real thing are sharp and pronounced, but the kit merely has some flabby facets. The one area of sharp detail is the lacing along the bottom, and this is grossly over scale. Fortunately, some sanding does take this down, and it doesn't look all that bad.

My resin learning curve was rising steeply. In my cockpit grinding, I found out that resin cockpit walls don't like being too thin. Upon realizing that I wouldn't be able to accurately stuff this area with everything needed, I went for a cover-up strategy. I would hide alot of the interior with a pilot! Not a terribly popular thing in modeling these days, I find it to be a wonderful solution whenever there's a problem with getting the cockpit just right. I built some internal structure using very thin sprue for the stringers and longerons and thin strips of typing paper coated with craft acrylic paint for the vertical formers. These assemblies were built and painted outside the cockpit and installed into the upper half. A few never-to-be-seen-again pieces were made and installed - a hand pump here and an instrument there. A dummyammunition box facade was made from plastic sheet and stuck up under the front coaming supported from the back with a crude scrap stick. Lurking on the photo-etch frame in the kit is a truly wonderful ammo box, which I elected to save for some future project.

The pilot consumed the most effort in this area. He was hashed together from three different figures, including an old Lindberg Me262 pilot, an Airfix Stuka pilot, and an Aurora ground crew guy. With the various body parts arranged, a long flying coat and scarf were built up and the flight helmet altered using good ol' tube style Bondo auto body putty reduced with MEK and lacquer thinner. I keep this mix on hand at all times, mixed in a bottle and ready to work with an old brush, literally painting on detail. Once this had set, and after a bit of clean-up sanding and filing, I shot it with gray primer. I fixed the remaining rough spots and then did the final painting. To this finished figure, I started adding more cockpit bits, including the kit's great rudder pedals and control stick grip. The belts and strappings were made from the acrylic-soaked paper. The underside of the "leather" coaming was painted and a block of wood glued under the turtle where a seat back would go, and the fuselage was ready to receive the pilot. He was unceremoniously shoved up into the upper half and his back glued to the block and the cockpit detailing was complete. To this point, all assembly was accomplished using green label Zap-A-Gap. The halves were put together with 2- part epoxy to allow plenty of working time to get the pieces lined up. Some Bondo-mix filled the side seam, a bit of sanding and the fuselage was ready for priming. Dit was sprayed and left to dry.

Turning back to the flying surfaces, I connected the elevators with a rod of skinny bamboo, shaved out of a kabob skewer. Bamboo is far stronger than plastic and easier to work than metal wire. A notch was cut into each elevator half and the ends of the bamboo rod glued into these notches. Bondo-mix was slopped on the joint, slight cleanup performed and my elevators were connected. I needed to replace the rib indications on the elevators, and this I did by masking off each rib location and spraying several thick coats of paint. When this had dried, I peeled off the tape, and gently sanded the proud paint stripes, leaving subtle but noticeable raised detail. The wings also had their already fine ribbing enhanced using the same method. The rudder had some material cut away to allow for a bamboo hinge post, and with a little touch of sandpaper, all was ready for priming. This was done and the major components were ready for a version of the Fokker streaked paint job.

Everything was first sprayed with a fabric color mixed from Model Master flat white with a few drops of the same brand's Skin Tone Base - Light, and insignia yellow. This was allowed to dry for maybe twenty-four hours, then the fun began. I had a film canister sitting around marked "Fokker green-brown water base". I have no idea what's in it, but it looked good. Taking an old stiff brush, I started at the front of the fuselage brushing vertical strokes until the brush needed recharging, following what was probably the actual method. Except for the prototype, all other D Vs seemed to have the same pattern of dense opaque strokes starting just behind the cowl, thinning out behind the cockpit, and more opaque denseness sprouting out behind the white cross field. The wings were similarly streaked, with the strokes perpendicular to the leading edge - NOT angled as on later Fokker products.

The elevators did receive angled strokes. This same color was also used to paint practically everything that wasn't fabric such as the struts, cowl, fasteners and all manner of minutia. Searching about for an underside color, I spied another mystery film canister, this one labled "WW I Ger Turq oil base". I opened and sniffed. It looked to be a usable light turquoise blue.

Declaring it to be satisfactory, I masked and sprayed the fuselage bottom along the longeron line (apparently correct for the D V). The elevator and wing undersurfaces also got shot with this stuff, with the bottom of the bottom wing having the fabric colored areas masked where the crosses would go. All sources consulted were uncertain about whether the flying surface undersides were clear doped fabric or painted in the turquoise light blue. I went with blue - just because it looks good! When all this was thoroughly dry, I "varnished" it using tinted Future floor wax. I filled a film canister (handy things!) roughly 2/3 with Future and added a couple of drops of brown craft acrylic and a drop of yellow. The acrylic colors were very generically labeled, being in fact called "brown" and "yellow". This stuff was hand brushed all over the components, giving a very pleasing and accurate appearance. After this "varnish" dried, I masked and sprayed the white cross fields on the top of the top wing.

Meanwhile, I needed some struts, an engine, some wheels, a cowl and a gun. As stated before, I dislike cast metal struts. This project did nothing to change my mind. The kit-supplied pieces are pretty rough and need lots of careful clean up. Indeed I was defeated. By the time they were even remotely smoothed, they had become so bent and irredeemably misshapen, that I resorted to my favorite material for parts such as these- bamboo. Strong, easy to shape, glue-and-paint loving bamboo! Hacked out of the ends of skewers, the shaped struts were coated with Zap-A-Gap, sanded, and the ties uniting the steel tubes and wood fairings of the real objects were painted on using white glue mixed with a little white paint - the white merely providing an indicator of where I'd been. Moving to the engine, I must say the kit piece is a jewel. It has the best cooling fins I've seen. Just be sure to put the etched rod assembly on the FRONT of the engine, disregarding the instructions on this matter. A dark black-brown wash, followed by the Future "varnish" mix and you'll be looking at a perfect miniature of a real Oberursel rotary. It's too bad that it will be almost completely obscured by the cowl and spinner. After the great engine, I was disappointed when I looked at the wheels. From the side, they appear fine, but head-on they're not just thin, they're cardboard thin. Scaled up, they wouldn't support a bicycle. It's really a shame because they have good diameter and detail. Digging into the scrap box, I found a couple of wheels from who knows what old kit.

The gun. Hmmmm. Copper State makes great photo-etch gun jackets so it was a surprise to find the kit only contained a one piece solid casting. Harumph! Out came an Eduard Spandau set. After dealing with the gun, the cowl was next. Like all such cast parts, it's heavy and at first glance appears somewhat crude. Before anything else, I shot it with primer and was pleasantly surprised with the surface finish, as there were very few pits or other anomalies. I now cheerfully grabbed the Dremel and thinned out the rear edge, and cleaned up the front opening. I added the retaining wire from some fine stuff I got out of an old clothes drier coil, Zapped it on, gave it another primer shot and was truly pleased.

Assembly went quickly - the bottom wing fit perfectly into a wide slot in fuselage (particularly fine work here, Copper State!). The gun was mounted and feed and ejection chutes added. Strut holes were emphasized with a bit in a pin vise and rigging holes drilled with a home made bit chucked into a battery powered Dremel. The homemade bit is nothing more than a piece of .007" guitar string jammed into the end of a piece of bamboo and Zapped in place. Cheap and disposable, it will drill true provided a starter dimple is pricked. I like structural rigging, and because I've heard horror tales about resin wings sagging over the years, this was the way I went. The holes are drilled all the way through. Starting with the photo-etch cabane struts, I mounted the top wing and made sure everything was lined up. I wish I had made my own bamboo cabanes - the etched units are just too weak and wobbly. Oh well. Using a little more than ordinary care, I cut the bamboo interplane struts to length, wedged them between the wings, got a couple of them secured with Zap and rested for a bit. After caffeinating myself, I took some so-called "invisible thread" nylon monofilament and started running it through all the holes. All lines were first secured at the top positions using drug- store brand name Krazy Glue. This stuff holds tighter and stronger for rigging. When the top glue joints had set, I went about pulling strands through the bottom holes, tweaking here, pulling tighter there, gluing as I went along, getting the alignment right, using the model's rigging to true and trim. When all had set firm, I trimmed the sprouts with a new #11 blade, gave the spots a little sanding and then touched up the cross fields on the wings. The fuselage white field was also masked and sprayed at this time.

After the previous day's work had dried overnight, the landing gear received its due. I DID use the kit cast struts as they were sturdy enough to withstand the cleanup. I cut an axle from wire-cored plastic rod and using all three hands somehow managed to get all three pieces lined up and stuck on. The D V had a rather unusual bungee arrangement and I duplicated this using a small piece of plastic rod for a spool, glued above the axle on the outside of the struts. To make the bungee chord itself, I used cotton thread that had been treated with white glue. There are four separate bungee coils, so for each one, I Zapped one end of the thread to the spool and started wrapping till it looked right and then cut and tucked. Next came all of the model's little bits and doo-dads: steps, rear fuselage handholds, a windshield from cigarette package cellophane and elevator horns. The D V's tail skid mount was an inverted pyramid of tubing and the kit's etched parts were just too flat so I used stretched sprue. Also, the kit's part list shows a tail skid among the cast items, but there was none to be found. Here again, the miracle of bamboo saved the day. The elevators were now glued on, directly across the knife-edge of the rear fuselage. The rudder received its control horns, the post was trimmed to length and this unit attached. Control wires were made from stretched sprue and stuck on. Now the beast was starting to look like a little Fokker!

It still needed its engine. Copper State has thoughtfully molded a little peg on the back of the crankcase and over this I glued an extension of plastic tubing to form the basis of a rotating mount. A firewall was cut and a piece of tube the inner diameter of which would receive the engine extension was lined up and glued into a carefully cut hole. The rear of the little motor was now offered up to the firewall, it's tiny plastic extension fitting into the firewall hole-and-tube. A retaining cap was glued on and I had a rotary engine that would spin on the firewall! Let me say here that I usually don't go for movable parts on models- it's just more things to break and fall off. But I make a big exception in the case of props- and especially when attached to spinning WW I rotary motors. I've noticed that with most kids and some adults, the first they do when they see a propeller is flick it with their fingers. If the prop can't move freely- SNAP! There's a murder to be committed and a repair to be made. In that order. If there's a chance your model will be shown in public or your friends and relatives are congenital "prop spinners", you must make the thing move! Yes, where were we? Ah, the engine mount. To allow the firewall-engine unit to be glued to the nose of the fuselage, I grabbed the Dremel and hollowed out the nose interior immediately behind where the firewall would fit. After attaching the unit to the nose and popping on the cowl takes, the prop was next. The kit includes two kinds - a Garuda and a Germania. They both look good, but I chose to use a scrapbox plastic prop modified to look like a Garuda. The kit spinner just didn't look right to my eye, appearing too pointy and narrow. Back to the scrap box. The spinner I chose ended up being too flat and fat, which covered even more of the great engine. Rats!

On to the decals. Printed by Microscale, they're GREAT. They're well printed, thin, non-curling and they're pretty much perfect. Copper State also did a very nice thing by including two sheets. They mention in the instructions that they goofed and the sheet only included one serial number, when two are required. Bless 'em - they just threw in another entire sheet! If there is one gripe about the markings, it's that the serial number - 2672/16- is for a machine that had plywood aileron gap fairings. This mod could be done, and it does show up on most pictures of the bird, but it's almost a shame to do too much fiddling with the great wings. For my markings, I just reversed the last two digits and this still gives me a machine in the right serial range.

In the home stretch now, I gently Futured the entire airplane and let this dry for a few days. I added the wheels and made and attached aileron control horns on the top of the top wing. Engine inspection side panels were painted on. I then dry-brushed and sprayed some rotary engine gunk around and underneath as these rotary powered planes could get incredibly filthy. An attempt was made to bring out the soft stringer detail by adding some airbrushed shadows in a few spots. A coat of half-shook Testors flat was sprayed overall for a semi-matte finish and all that was left to do was hit a few spots with a small brush and Future - the pilot's goggles, his leather jacket and the cockpit coaming.

The kit has its problems, but overall I enjoyed making it. If I decided to put on my "evil killer contest hat" and construct a world beating Fokker D V model, would I get this kit? YES! The basics plus a lot more are contained in this small box. Aside from my personal problems regarding some metal parts, the only real disappointment is the soft fuselage detail, and this could be dealt with. Please just don't ask me how right now - I'm tired!



Kommentaar:

  1. Mateo

    Ek het iets geslaag?

  2. Brendan

    Ja inderdaad. Ek stem saam met alles hierbo per gesê.

  3. Tegore

    I congratulate, the magnificent idea and it is timely

  4. Nahiossi

    Ek is bewus van hierdie situasie. Ons kan bespreek.

  5. Kevon

    Ek vertrou hierin.

  6. Williamon

    I think you admit the mistake. Ek stel voor om te ondersoek.



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